Literature on esports

Esports grew exponentially in recent years and the topic becomes increasingly relevant in academic research. Therefore, the goal of this page is to create an extensive list of academic literature on esports. However, not only focused on research done in English but also other languages. This list is based on the initial literature list done by T.L. Taylor.
The list is curated by Nico Besombes, Mariano Bourgeois, J. Agustín Carrillo, Will Partin, Tobias Scholz, Lisa Völkel.
Last updated 16th July 2020
5th Annual Sports Law Symposium (University of Pennsylvania) bibliography lists a number of legal articles on esports. (


Abad, J. E. (2015). Deportes Electrónicos: A un clic de distancia. 11° Congreso Argentino y 6° Latinoamericano de Educación Física y Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de La Plata. (
Abanazir, C. (2019). E-Sport and the EU: The View from the English Bridge Union. The International Sports Law Journal, 18 (3–4), 102–113,
Abanazir, C. (2018). Institutionalisation in E-Sports. Sports, Ethics and Philosophy, 13 (2), 117–131,
Abarbanel, B., & Johnson, M. R. (2018). Esports Consumer Perspectives on Match-Fixing: Implications for Gambling Awareness and Game Integrity. International Gambling Studies, 296-311.
Abrams, M. S. (2013). The Legal Status of Video Games: Comparative Analysis in National Approaches. (
Adams, J. L. (2016). Female Fighters: Perceptions of Femininity in the Super Smash Bros. Community. Press Start, 3 (1), 99-114.
Adamus, T.  (2012).  Playing Computer Games as Electronic Sport: In Search of a Theoretical Framing for a New Research Field. In J. Fromme & A. Unger (Eds.), Computer Games and New Media Cultures: A Handbook of Digital Game Studies (pp. 477–490). Berlin: Springer,
Adamus, T. (2015). Organisation und Gestaltung von Lernprozessen in Computerspielen: eine Untersuchung am Beispiel der deutschen E-Sport-Szene (Doctoral Dissertation). Universität Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg-Essen.
Adinolf, S., & Turkay, S. (2018). Toxic Behaviors in Esports Games: Player Perceptions and Coping Strategies. In Proceedings of the 2018 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play Companion Extended Abstracts (pp. 365-372). ACM,
Agha, B. (2015). League of Legends: Players and Esports (Master’s thesis). McMaster University: Hamilton.
Al Dafai, S. (2016). Conventions within eSports: Exploring Similarities in Design. Proceedings of 1st International Joint Conference of DiGRA and FDG. (
Algesheimer, R., Dholakia, U. M., & Gurau, C. (2011). Virtual Team Performance in a Highly Competitive Environment. Group & Organization Management, 36(2), 161–190.
Allard, R. (2017). Investir dans l’esport. Quels sont les facteurs clés qui font le succès d’un jeu esport (Mémoire de Master). Université Paris Sud, Paris.
Almeida, C. E. M., Correia, R. C. M., Eler, D. M., Olivete-Jr, C., Garci, R. E., Scabora, L. C., & Spadon, G. (2017). Prediction of winners in MOBA games. In Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, CISTI.
Altenbach Berthod, R. (2017). L’hygiénisation du corps du joueur esportif et du gamer. Université de Lausanne.
Altenbach Berthod, R. (2018). Engagement émotionnel dans la pratique du jeu vidéo compétitif. Université de Lausanne.
Amazan-Hall, K., Chen, J. J., Chiang, K., Cullen, A. L. L., Deppe, M., Dormitorio, E., … Trammell, A. (2018). Diversity and Inclusion in Esports Programs in Higher Education: Leading by Example at UCI. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 10(2), 71–80,
American Journal of Play. (2020). The Rise of Massive Multiplayer Online Games, Esports, and Game Live Streaming. An Interview with T. L. Taylor. American Journal of Play, 12(2), 107-116.
Anderson, C. G., Tsaasan, A. M., Reitman, J., Lee, J. S., Wu, M., Steel, H., … Steinkuehler, C. (2018). Understanding esports as a STEM career ready curriculum in the wild. In 2018 10th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications, VS-Games 2018 – Proceedings,
Anderson, M. (2018). Marketing Esports to the Masses: Testing the Efficacy of Positive Community-Curated Stimuli on Mitigating Negative Attitudes towards Esports. Master Thesis. University of York.
Andrews, D., & Ritzer, G. (2018). Sport and Prosumption. Journal of Consumer Culture, 18 (2), 356–373,
Antón-Roncero, M., & García García, F. (2014). Deportes electrónicos. Una aproximación a las posibilidades comunicativas de un mercado emergente. Questiones publicitarias, 1 (19), 98–115,
Arnusch, F. (2015). Sportübertragung 2.0: das Publikum von eSport-Streams im deutschsprachigen Raum (Magisterarbeit). Universität Wien, Wien.
Ash, J. (2012). Technology, Technicity, and Emerging Practices of Temporal Sensitivity in Videogames. Environment and Planning A44 (1), 187–203,
Assuncao, C. (2018). Sportification of Professional Gaming: A Study on Gender and Technology. Proceedings of the Se­mi­nar on eS­ports, Exer­ga­ming, and Fan­ta­sy Lea­gues, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
Atalay, A., & Topuz, A. C. (2018). What Is Being Played in the World? Mobile eSport Applications. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 6(6), 1243-1251,
Ayar, H. (2018). Development of e-Sport in Turkey and in the World. International Journal of Science Culture and Sport, 6(1), 95-102,


Bacic, B., Meng, Q., & Chan, K. Y. (2017). Privacy Preservation for eSports: A Case Study Towards Augmented Video Golf Coaching System. 2017 10th International Conference on Developments in eSystems Engineering (DeSE) (pp. 169-174). Paris,
Baek, W., Park, A., Kim, J., & Jung, K. (2007). e-Sports Live: e-Sports Relay Broadcasting on Demand. In M. J. Smith & G. Salvendy (Eds.), Human Interface and the Management of Information. Interacting in Information Environments. Human Inferace 2007. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 4558. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 685-693.
Bagger von Grafenstein, T. (2018). eSport: Welche Vor- und Nachteile bringt eine rechtliche Qualifizierung mit sich? Folgen einer Aufnahme im DOSB. MultiMeida und Recht, 2/2018, 20-24.
Baltezarević, R., & Baltezarević, B. (2018). The impact of video games on the formation of eSports. Physical Education and Sport, 16(1), 137-147.
Bányai, F., Griffiths, M. D., Király, O., & Demetrovics, Z. (2018). The Psychology of Esports: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Gambling Studies, 1-15, published online 05 March.
Bányai, F., Griffiths, M. D., Demetrovics, Z., & Király, O.  (2019). The Mediating Effect of Motivations Between Psychiatric Distress and Gaming Disorder Among eSport Gamers and Recreational Gamers. Comprehensive Psychatry, 94, 1-8.
Barnabe, F. (2014). Le speedrun: pratique compétitive, ludique ou créative? Trajectoire d’un détournement de jeu vidéo institué en nouveau game. Culture Numérique.
Bayliss, H. (2016). Not Just a Game: The Employment Status and Collective Bargaining Rights of Professional ESports Players. Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights ans Social Justice, 22(2), 359-409.
Becka, L. (2019). Eventos de deportes electrónicos: Estudio de sus particularidades desde una perspectiva turística. Degree Thesis. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. (
Bednárek, D., Kruliš, M., Yaghob, J., & Zavoral, F. (2017). Data Preprocessing of eSport Game Records: Counter-Strike: Global Offensive. In DATA 2017 – Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Data Science, Technology and Applications (pp. 269-276).
Bednárek, D., Kruliš, M., Yaghob, J., & Zavoral, F. (2018). Player Performance Evaluation in Team-Based First-Person Shooter eSport. Communications in Computer and Information Science, 814, 154-175.
Benitah, S., & Gardon, L. (2017). L’esport peut-il devenir le sport 2.0 ? Mémoire de Master.
Berard, A., & Daigremont, C. (2016). Analyse des dynamiques organisationnelles à travers LoL. Master Thesis. EM Lyon.
Bertschy, M., Mühlbacher, H., & Desbordes, M. (2019). Esports Extension Of A Football Brand: Stakeholder Co-creation in Action?. European Sport Management Quarterly, 1-22.
Besombes, N. (2015). Du streaming au mainstreaming : mécanismes de médiatisation du sport électronique. Dans Obœuf, A. (dir.), Sport et médias, Essentiels d’Hermès, Paris : CNRS éditions, 179-189.
Besombes, N. (2016a). Les jeux vidéo compétitifs au prisme des jeux sportifs : du sport au sport électronique. Sciences du jeu, (5).
Besombes, N. (2016b). Sport électronique, agressivité motrice et sociabilités (Doctoral dissertation, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité).
Besombes, N. (2018). Exécution et mindgame dans les jeux vidéo de combat. Les deux facettes de la vidéomotricité dans l’e-sport. Movement & Sports Sciences/Sciences et Motricité, 99, 19-34.
Besombes, N. (2018). Sport et e-sport. Une comparaison récurrente à déconstruire. Jurisport, 185, 19-23.
Besombes, N. (2018). The World of Esports – What You need to know. Sport intern
Besombes, N. (2019). Esports & Social Research. Retrieved from
Besombes, N., Bodenand, X., Louchart, S., Delestage, C.A., & Alvarez, J. (2017). Clubs de football et e-sport: analyse croisée des influences et des repositionnements économiques et techniques. Congrès de l’International Society of Sport Sciences in The Arab World (I3SAW), Current State and Future Perspectives, Stirling, Écosse, 24-27 Avril 2017.
Besombes, N., & Vansyngel, S. (2017). L’émiettement institutionnel de l’e-sport en France : une reconnaissance des pouvoirs publics malgré le désengagement du ministère des Sports. Biennale de l’Association Française de Sociologie (AFS), Sport et Pouvoir (RT 31), Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, 3-6 juillet 2017.
Blackburn, J., & Kwak, H. (2014, April). Stfu Noob! Predicting Crowdsourced Decisions on Toxic Behavior in Online Games. In Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on World wide web (pp. 877-888). ACM.
Block, F., Hodge, V., Hobson, S., Sephton, N., Devlin, S., Ursu, M. F., … Cowling, P. I. (2018). Narrative Bytes: Data-driven Content Production in Esports (pp. 29-41). In TVX 2018 – Proceedings of the 2018 ACM International Conference on Interactive Experiences for TV and Online Video.
Bo, L., Fa, H., & Yi, Y. (2010). Beijing E-Sports Industry Development Based on SWOT Analysis. In Retrieved from
Boguslavskaya, V., Budnik, E., Azizulova, A., & Sharakhina, L. V. (2018). Cybersport Community: Social Structures Transformation as a Basis for Intercultural Dialogue. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 11193 LNCS, 300-311.
Boluk, S., & Lemieux, P. (2017). Metagaming: Playing, Competing, Spectating, Cheating, Trading, Making, and Breaking Video Games. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Bonner, J., & Woodward, C. (2012). On Domain-specific Decision Support Systems for E-sports Strategy Games. Proceedings of the 24th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, (Densham 1991), 42-51.
Bonny, J. W., & Castaneda, L. M. (2016). Impact of the Arrangement of Game Information on Recall Performance of Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Players. Applied Cognitive Psychology. DOI: 10.1002/acp.3234.
Bonny, J. W., Castaneda, L. M., & Swanson, T. (2016, May). Using an International Gaming Tournament to Study Individual Differences in MOBA Expertise and Cognitive Skills. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 3473-3484). ACM.
Borggrefe, C. (2018). eSport gehört nicht unter das Dach des organisierten Sports. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research48(3), 447-450.
Borggrefe, C. (2018). Kommentar zu: Borchert, Schulke und Schneider (2018) „eSport: Vom Präfix zum Thema für den organisierten Sport!?“. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research48(3), 456-457.
Borkowski, J. (2018). La femme dans l’esport : état des lieux de la mixité au travers du parcours des joueuses et joueurs compétitifs du jeu vidéo en France. Mémoire de MAster 2 Sociologie. Université de Rennes.
Bornemark, O. (2013). Success Factors for E-Sport Games. In S. Bensch & F. Drewes (Eds.), Proceedings of Umea’s 16th Student Conference in Computing Science USCCS 2013 (pp. 1-12). Umea: Umea University.
Borowy, M., & Jin, D. Y. (2013). Pioneering eSport: The Experience Economy and the Marketing of Early 1980s Arcade Gaming Contests. International Journal of Communication, 7.
Borowy, M., & Jin, D. Y. (2016). Mega-Events and Globalization: Capital and Spectacle in a Changing World Order. London: Routledge.
Bosc, G., Kaytoue, M., Raïssi, C., Boulicaut, J.-F., & Tan, P. (2014). Mining balanced patterns in real-time strategy games. LIRIS Research Report. (Extended version of paper presented at European Conference on Artificial Intelligence– ECAI 2014.)
Bosc, G., Kaytoue, M., Raïssi, C., & Boulicaut, J. F. (2014, January). Fouille de motifs séquentiels pour l’élicitation de stratégies à partir de traces d’interactions entre agents en compétition. EGC, 14, 359-370.
Bosc, G., Tan, P., Boulicaut, J. F., Raïssi, C., & Kaytoue, M. (2015). A Pattern Mining Approach to Study Strategy Balance in RTS Games. IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, PP(99), 1-1.
Bosser, A. G., & Nakatsu, R. (2006). Hardcore Gamers and Casual Gamers Playing Online Together. In Harper R., Rauterberg M., Combetto M. (Eds.) Entertainment Computing – ICEC 2006. ICEC 20.
Boudot, M., & Faure-Abbad, M. (2017). La qualification juridique de l’e-sport. Dans Rabu, G. & Reverchon-Billot, M. (dir.), Les enjeux juridiques de l’e-sport (23-24). Presses Universitaires d’Aix-Marseille.
Bowman, N. (2013). Facilitating game play: How others affect performance at and enjoyment of video games. Media Psychology, 16(1), 39-64.
Brannon, J. (2018). Are You Not Entertained: Considering the P-3 Visa as an Alternative Option for International Esports Professional Gamers. Arizona Law Review, 60(3), 753-781.
Brauer, J. T., & Van Wambeke-Long, J. H. (2014). Approaching Growth in E-Sports. Retrieved from
Braun, B., Stopfer, J. M., Müller, K. W., Beutel, M. E., & Egloff, B. (2016). Personality and video gaming: comparing regular gamers, non-gamers, and gaming addicts and differentiating between game genres. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 406–412. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.09.041
Breuer, M. (2011). E-Sport – eine Markt- und ordnungsökonomische Analyse. Boizenburg: vwh Verlag.
Breuer, M. (2012). E-Sport – Perspektiven aus Wissenschaft und Wirtschaft. Glückstadt: vwh Verlag.
Brewer, J., Romine, M., & Taylor, T. L. (2020). Inclusion at Scale: Deploying a Community-Driven Moderation Intervention on Twitch. In DIS2020, July 06-10, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
Brickell, A. (2017). Adressing Integrity and Regulatory Risks in eSports: the Responsibility of the Whole eSports Community. Gaming Law Review, 21(8), 603-609.
Brock, T. (2017). Roger Caillois and E-sports: On the Problems of Treating Play as Work. Games and Culture, 12(4), 321-329.
Brock, T., & Fraser, E. (2018). Is Computer Gaming a Craft? Prehension, Practice, and Puzzle Solving in Gaming Labour. Information, Communication & Society, 21(9), 1219-1233, published online 03 May.
Brown, K. A., Billings, A. C., Lewis, M., Bissell, K. (2018). Explicating the Electricity of eSports: Motivations for Play and Consumption. In Bowman, N. (Ed.), Video Games: A Medium that Demands our Attention (pp. 178–192). New York, NY: Routledge.
Brown, K. A., Billings, A. C., Murphy, B., & Puesan, L. Intersections of Fandom in the Age of Interactive Media: eSports Fandom as a Predictor of Traditional Sport Fandom. Communication & Sport, 6(4), 418-435.
Brünnle, T. T. (2016). Teambildung in Onlinespielen. Retrieved from
Burger, V., Pajo, J. F., Sanchez, O. R., Seufert, M., Schwartz, C., Wamser, F., … Tran-Gia, P. (2016). Load Dynamics of a Multiplayer Online Battle Arena and Simulative Assessment of Edge Server Placements. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Multimedia Systems – MMSys ’16 (pp. 1-9). ACM Press.
Burk, D. (2013). Owning e-Sports: Proprietary Rights in Professional Computer Gaming. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 161, 1535-1578.
Burroughs, B., & Rama, P. (2015). The eSports Trojan Horse: Twitch and Streaming Futures. Journal For Virtual Worlds Research, 8(2).
Burton, R., & Gawrysiak, J. (2017). Using eSports Efficiently to Enhance and Extend Brand Perceptions. 2017 Sport Marketing Association Conference (SMA XV)
Byrne, A. M. (2020). Using Esports to Teach Bystanders Leadership and Collaboration for Students in STEM. About Campus, March-April 2020, 24-27.


Campbell, M., Toth, A., Moran, A., Kowal, M., & Exton, C. (2018). Esports: A New Window on Neurocognitive Expertise? Progress in Brain Research, 240, 161–174.
Candela, J., & Jakee, K. (2018). Can ESports Unseat the Sports Industry? Some Preliminary Evidence from the United States. Choregia14(2).
Canfield, B. (2017). Case Analysis: Gradually, Not Suddenly: Judge John C. Coughenour’s Crucial Role in the Legal Standing of Esports. Gaming Law Review-Economics Regulation Compliance and Policy, 21(8), 634-636.
Canning, S., & Betrus, A. (2017). The Culture of Deep Learning in ESports: An Insider’s Perspective. Educational Technology, 57(2), 65–69.
Canossa, A., Witkowski, E., & Ozkaynak, D. (2015). Over-Lenient and Over-Aggressive Behaviors: Gender Play in League of Legends.
Carbonie, A., Guo, Z., & Cahalane, M. (2018). Positive Personal Development through eSports. PACIS 2018 Proceedings. 125.
Carlsson, C., & Pelling, A. (2015). Desining Spectator Interfaces for Competitive Video Games (Master’s thesis). Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
Carrillo-Vera, J. A. (2015). La dimensión social de los videojuegos ‘online’ de las comunidades de jugadores a los ‘e-sports’. Index. comunicación, 5(1), 39-51.
Carrillo-Vera, J. A. (2016). From Players to Viewers: the Construction of the Media Spectacle in the E-sports Context. In : J. Sánchez-Navarro, A. Planells, V. Navarro, D. Aranda (Eds.), Juego digital II: Anàlisi. Quaderns de Comunicació i Cultura, 55, 1-16.
Carrillo-Vera, J. A., & Aguado-Terrón, J. M. (2019). The eSports Ecosystem: Stakeholders and Trends in a New Show Business. Catalan Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies, 11 (1), 3-22.
Carrillo-Vera, J. A., & Aguado-Terrón, J. M. (2016). Formas publicitarias adaptadas al nuevo escenario de los e-sports. In Libro de Actas del I Congreso Iberoamericano de Investigadores en Publicidad (126).
Carrillo-Vera, J. A., Aguado-Terrón, J. M., & Gómez-García, S. (2018). Following the Trail of eSports: The Multidisciplinary Boom of Research on the Competitive Practice of Video Games. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations (IJGCMS), 10(4), 42-61.
Carter, M., & Gibbs, M. (2013). eSports in EVE Online: Skullduggery, Fair Play and Acceptability in an Unbounded Competition. Foundations of Digital Games Conference, 14-17 May, Chania, Greece.
Carter, M., Gibbs, M., & Arnold, M. (2015). The Demarcation Problem in Multiplayer Games: Boundary-work in EVE Online’s eSport. Game Studies, 15(1). Retrieved from:
Carvalho, J. P. B. C. (2015). Business Models in Professional Electronic Sports Teams (Thèse de Master). Universidade do Minho, Escola de Economia e Gestão.
Cavadenti, O., Codocedo, V., Boulicaut, J. F., & Kaytoue, M. (2015). When Cyberathletes Conceal Their Game: Clustering Confusion Matrices to Identify Avatar Aliases. In Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics, DSAA 2015.
Chalmet, X. (2017). Sponsorship within Esports: Examining the Sponsorship Relationship Quality Constructs. Masters Degree Project: University of Gothenberg.
Chambers, T. (2020). Alcohol Sponsoring and Esports: Reinforcing the Need for Legislative Restrictions on Alcohol Sponsorship. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 1-3.
Chan, D. (2012). Locating Play. In J. E. Lent & L. Fitzsimmons (Eds.), Asian Popular Culture (pp. 17-34). Lanham, MD: Lexington.
Chanson, R. (2017). Le guide de l’esport . Hors Collection, 174-183.
Chao, L. L. (2017). You Must Construct Additional Pylons. Building a Better Framework for Esports Governance. Fordham Law Review,86(2), 737-765.
Charleer, S., Et Al. (2018). Real-Time Dashboards to Support eSports Spectating. CHI PLAY ’18 Proceedings of the 2018 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, 59–71
Chee, F., & Smith, R. K. (2005). Online Gamers and the Ambiguity of Community: Korean Definitions of Togetherness for a New Generation. Internet Research Annual, 4. New York: Peter Lang.
Chen Christensen, N. (2006). Geeks at Play: Doing Masculinity in an Online Gaming Site. Reconstruction, 6.1 (Winter).
Cheong, H. Y., Choo, W. L., Lim, C. W., & Tin, T. (2017). Video Games and Its Economy Impact in Southeast Asia Country. International Journal of Advanced Scientific Research and Management, 2(1).
Cheung, G., & Huang, J. (2011). Starcraft from the Stands: Understanding the Game Spectator. In CHI ’11 Proceedings of the 2011 annual conference on Human factors in computing systems, ACM, 763-772.
Choi, E.-Y. (2013). Investigating Factors Influencing Game Piracy in the eSports Settings of South Korea. Retrieved from
Choi, C. et al. (2017). A new Approach Via Level of Addiction in eSports: Investigating Participation Motives from a Marketing Perspective. 2017 Sport Marketing Association Conference (SMA XV).
Choi, C., Hums, M., & Bum, C. H. (2018). Impact of the Family Environment on Juvenile Mental Health: eSports Online Game Addiction and Delinquency. International journal of environmental research and public health15(12), 2850.
Christophers, J., & Scholz, T. M. (2010). eSports Yearbook 2009. Norderstedt: Books on Demand GmbH.
Christophers, J., & Scholz, T. M. (2011). eSports Yearbook 2010. Norderstedt: Books on Demand GmbH.
Christophers, J., & Scholz, T. M. (2012). eSports Yearbook 2011/12. Norderstedt: Books on Demand GmbH.
Christophers, J., & Scholz, T. M. (2015). eSports Yearbook 2013/14. Norderstedt: Books on Demand GmbH.
Coates, D., & Parshakov, P.  (2016). Team vs. Individual Tournaments Evidence from Prize Structure in eSports. BASIC RESEARCH PROGRAM WORKING PAPERS.
Comerford, S. (2012). Note: International Intellectual Property Rights and the Future of Global ‘e-sports’. Brooklyn Journal of International Law, 37, 623.
Consalvo, M. (2007). Cheating. Gaining Advantage in Videogames. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Consalvo, M., Mitgutsch, K., & Stein, A. (Eds.) (2013). Sports Videogames. New York, NY: Routledge.
Conway, S. (2010). It’s in the Game’ and Above the Game. Convergence, 16(3), 334- 354.
Conway, S. (2016). An Earthless World: the Contemporary Enframing of Sport in Digital Games. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 10(1), 83-96.
Cornière, C. (2018). Étude exploratoire de l’activité décisionnelle individuelle et collective d’une équipe experte de League of Legends en séquence de regroupement. Mémoire de Master 1 STAPS. Université de Bretagne.
Cottrell, C., McMillen, N., & Harris, B. S. (2018). Sport Psychology in a Virtual World: Considerations for Practicioners Working in eSports. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action.
Crawford, G. (2005). Digital Gaming, Sport, and Gender. Leisure Studies, 24(3), 259–270.
Crawford, G., & Gosling, V. K. (2009). More Than a Game: Sports-themed Video Games and Player Narratives. Sociology of Sport Journal, 26, 50–66.
Cullen, A. L. L. (2018). ‘I play to win!’: Geguri as a (Post)Feminist Icon in eSports. Feminist Media Studies, 18(5), 948-952.
Cunningham, G. B., Fairley, S., Ferkins, L., Kerwin, S., Lock, D., Shaw, S., & Wicker, P. (2018). eSport: Construct Specifications and Implications for Sport Management. Sport Management Review, 21(1), 1-6.
Curley, A. J., Nausha, M., Slocum, J., & Lombardi, D. (2016). What Motivates Esports Fans? A Data-Driven Approach to Business and Development Strategy (unpublished Master’s thesis). Southern Methodist University Guildhall, Planp, TX. Retrieved from [https://].


Dagdee, P., & Philip, L. (2019). The Rise PUBG and the Martketing Strategies behind its success. International Journal of Scientific Research and Review, 7(3), 1009-1021.
Davidovici-Nora, M. (2017). e-Sport as Leverage for Growth Strategy: The Example of League of Legends. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations (IJGCMS), 9(2), 33-46.
Demediuk, S., Murrin, A. Bulger, D., Hitchens, M., Drachen, A., Raffe, W. L., & Tamassia, M. (2018, January). Player Retention in League of Legends: a Study Using Survival Analysis. In Proceedings of the Australasian Computer Science Week Multiconference (p. 43). ACM.
Desbordes, M., & Richelieu, A. (2019). International Sport Marketing: Issues and Practice. Abingdon, England: Routledge.
DiFrancisco-Donoghue, J., & Ballentine, J. (2018). Collegiate Esport: Where Do We Fit In?. 17(4), 117–118.
Dobill, M. (2017). Leveling (up) the Playing Field: A Policy-Based Case for Legalizing and Regulating Esports Gambling. Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review, 37(2), 139-179.
Donaldson, S. (2017). Mechanics and Metagame: Exploring Binary Expertise in League of Legends. Games and Culture, 12(5), 426-444.
Donaldson, S. (2016). Metagaming and Subversive Play in League of Legends. Proceedings of the First International Joint Conference of DiGRA and FDG Dundee, Scotland: Digital Games Research Association and Society for the Advancement of the Science of Digital Games, 2(13).
Dongsheng, Y., Xiaohang, Y., & Daofeng, K. (2011, August). The Present Situation and Development Trend of E-sports Games in China. In Future Computer Science and Education Proceedings (pp. 384–386). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE.
Donoghue, J., Schmidt, G. J., Balentine, J. R., & Zwibel. H. (2019). Managing the Health of the eSport Athlete: An Integrated Health Management Model. BMJ Open sport & Exercise Medicine, 5, 1-6.
Dor, S. (2014). The Heuristic Circle of Real-time Strategy Process A StarCraft Brood War Case Study. Game Studies, 14(1).
Drachen, A., Yancey, M., Maguire, J., Chu, D., Wang, I. Y., Mahlmann, T., (…), & Klabjan, D. (2016). Skill-based Differences in Spatio-temporal Team Behavior in Defence of the Ancients 2. 6th IEEE Consumer Electronics Society Games, Entertainment, Media Conference.
Dubbels, B. R. (2018). Exploring the Cognitive, Social, Cultural, and Psychological Aspects of Gaming and Simulations. Hersheym, PA: IGI Global.
Ducrocq, S. (2011). Les tribus ludiques du” LAN party”: perspectives d’apprentissage et de socialisation en contexte de compétition de jeux vidéo en réseau local (Doctoral dissertation). Université du Québec à Montréal, Montreal.
Duggan, M. (2015, December 15). Gaming and Gamers. Retrieved from


Ebrahimi, M., & Chen, Lei. (2014). Emerging Cyberwork Attack Vectors: Modification, Customization, Secretive Communications, and Digital Forensics in PC Video Games. Published in 2014 International Conference on Computing, Networking (ICNC).
Edgar, A. (2019). Esport. Sports, Ethics, and Philosophy. 13(1), 1-2.
Egliston, B. (2015). Playing Across Media: Transtextuality in Competitive Games and eSports. In Proceedings of DiGRA 2015: Diversity of play: Games — Cultures — Identities.
Egliston, B. (2018). E-sport, Phenomenality and Affect. Transformations, 31, 156-176.
Ehnold, P., Gohritz, A., Lichtenwimmer, D. (2018). Playstation und Fußballplatz: vom eSport-Zuschauer zum Fußballfan?. Sciamus – Sport und Management, 2/2018, 1-20.
Ekdahl, D., & Ravn, S. (2018). Embodied Involvement in Virtual Worlds: the Case of eSports Practitioners. Sport, Ethics, and Philosophy, 13(2), 132-144.
Elam, J., & Taylor, N. (2020). Above the Action: The Cultural Politics of Watching Dota 2. Communication, Culture & Critique, 1-18.
Ellenport, C. (2019). Esports: A Billion Eyeballs and Growing. Broomall, PA: NAtional Highlights Inc.
Engel, L. B. (2014). The Self-critical Politics of Play: Politics as Autotelic (Master’s thesis). Macquarie University, Sydney.
Engerman, J., & Hein, R. (2017). ESports Gaming and You. Educational Technology, 57(2), 62–64. Retrieved from
Esser, R., Lackmann, K., Wintgens, G., Rödelbronn, N., Credico, L., & Grunewald, M. (2018). Continue to Play: der deutsche eSports-Markt in der Analyse. Retrieved from
Evren, B., Evren, C., Dalbudak, E., Topcu, M., & Kutlu, N. (2018). Relationship of Internet Addiction Severity with Probable ADHD and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Among Young Adults. Psychatry Research, 269, 494-500.
Evren, C., Dalbudak E., Topcu, M., Kutlu, N., Evren, B., & Pontes, H. M. (2018). Psychometric Validation of the Turkish Nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS9-SF). Psychatry Research, 265, 349-354


Facchini, L. V. (2018). Digital Strategy in a Sport Club: A Model to Support the Analysis (Master’s thesis). Politenico di Milano, Milano.
Faust, K., Meyer, J., &  Griffiths, M. (2013). Competitive and Professional Gaming: Discussing Potential Benefits of Scientific Study. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning, 3(1), 67-77.
Felczak, M. (2015). Narratives of Spectatorship: E-sports in Poland. In T. Bártek, J. Miškov & J. Švelch (Eds.), New Perspectives on Game Studies (pp. 109–124). Brno: Masaryk University.
Ferrari, S. (2013). Esport and the Human Body: Foundations for a Popular Aesthetics.In Proceedings of DiGRA 2013: Defragging Game Studies, Atlanta, GA.
Ferrari, S. (2013). From Generative to Conventional Play: MOBA and League of Legends. In Proceedings of DiGRA 2013: DeFragging Game Studies, Atlanta, GA.
Fiedler, I., Ante, L., & Steinmetz, F. (2018). Die Konvergenz von Gaming und Gambling. Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler.
Finch, D. J., Abeza, G., O’Reilly, N., & Mikkelson, A. (2020). Esports Sponsorship: Practitioners’ Perspectives on Emerging Trends. Journal of Brand Strategy, 9(1), 59-74.
Fischer, P. (2019). Rechtsfragen einer Anerkennung des e-Sports als gemeinnützig: erstellt für den Deutschen Olypmischen Sportbund (DOSB). Retrieved from:
Fisher, S. D. (2014). The Rise of eSports. League of Legends Article Series.
Fisher, S. D. (2014). Collective Bargaining. League of Legends Article Series.
Francken, J. P., Nothelfer, N., & Schlotthauer, P. (2019). Der Arbeitnehmer im professionalen eSport. Neue Zeitschrift für Arbeitsrecht, 36(13), 865-870.
Franke, T. (2015). The Perception of eSports – Mainstream Culture, Real Sport and Marketisation. In Hiltscher, J., & Scholz, T. M. (Eds.). eSports Yearbook 2013/14 (pp. 111-144). Norderstedt: Books on Demand GmbH.
Freeman, G. (2018). Multiplayer Online Games: Origins, Players, and Social Dynamics. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Freeman, G., & Wohn, D. Y. (2017). Understanding eSports Team Formation and Coordination. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 27(3-6), 1019-1050.

Freeman, G., & Wohn, D. Y. (2017, May). eSports as an Emerging Research Context at CHI: Diverse Perspectives on Definitions. In Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1601-1608). ACM.
Freeman, G., & Wohn, D. Y. (2017). Social Support in Esports: Building Emotional and Self-Esteem from Instrumental Support Interactions in a Highly Competitive Environment. CHI Play ’17: Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play. 435–447.
Frey, D. (2018). eSports: Rechtsfragen eines komplexen Ökosystems im Überblick. SpuRT: Zeitschrift für Sport und Recht, 2-5.
Frey, D., & Pommer, J. (2018). Herausforderungen für die weitere Entwicklung des eSport: Überlegungen aus der Perspektive des Veranstalters. MultiMedia und Recht, 7-11.
Friman, U. (2018). Why Do Finnish Women Not Participate in eSports? In Proceedings of the Se­mi­nar on eS­ports, Exer­ga­ming, and Fan­ta­sy Lea­gues, Finland, University of Jyväskylä.
Funk, D. C., Pizzo, A. D., & Baker, B. J. (2018). eSport Management: Embracing eSport Education and Research Opportunities. Sport Management Review, 21(1), 7-13.


Gainsbury, S., Abarbanel, B., & Blaszczynski, A. (2017). Game on: Comparison of Demographic Profiles, Consumption Behaviours, and Gambling Site Selection Criteria of eSports and Sports Bettors. Gaming Law Review, 21(8), 575–587.
Gainsbury, S., Abarbanel, B., & Blaszczynski, A. (2017). Intensity and Gambling Harms: Exploring Breadth of Gambling Involvement Among Esports Bettors. Gaming Review, 21(8).
Gandolfi, E. (2016). To Watch or to Play, it is in the Game. The Game Culture on Twitch. Tv Among Performers, Plays and Audiences. Journal of Gaming & Virtual Worlds, 8(1), 63-82.
Gangarapu, S. (2018). The Effect of Emerging Online New Media on Traditional Media Consumption. The Case of eSports and Traditional Sports.
Gao, G., Min, A. & Shih, P. C. (2017). Gendered Design Bias: Gender Differences of In-game Character Choice and Playing Style in League of Legends. In Proceedings of the 29th Australian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction (pp. 307-317), ACM.
García, J., & Murillo, C. (2020). Sports Video Games Participation: What Can we Learn for Esports? Sport, Business and Management.
Garcia-Bardidia, R., & Nau, J. P. (2017). L’institutionnalisation du e-sport. Dans Rabu, G. & Reverchon-Billot, M. (dir.), Les enjeux juridiques de l’e-sport. Presses Universitaires d’Aix-Marseille.
Garcia-Lanzo, S., & Chamarro, A. (2018). Basic Psychological Needs, Passion and Motivations in Amateur and Semi-professional eSports Players. Aloma, 36(2), 59-68.
Gawrysiak, J., Burton, R., Jenny, S., & Williams, D. (2020). Using Esports Efficiently to Enhance and Extend Brand Perceptions – A Literature Review. Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research.
Gdowski, M. (2017). Cognitive Function Analysis in e-sport on Example of DotA 2 Game (Doctoral dissertation). Instytut Radioelektroniki i Technik Multimedialnych.
Geiler, A. (2016) eSports: Auf dem Weg zum Massenphänomen. Zeitschrift für Herz-, Thorax-, und Gefäßchirurgie, 30(3), 213-216.
Georgen, C., Duncan, S. C., & Cook, L. (2015). From Lurking to Participatory Spectatorship: Understanding Affordances of the Dota 2 Noob Stream. In CSCL 2015 Proceedings (pp. 581–585).
Gerber, H. R. (2017). Esports and Streaming: Twitch Literacies. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 61(3), 343-345.
Gibbs, M., Carter, M., & Witkowski, E. (2017, October). Understanding Esports Spectatorship: Players, Fans, Recruits. In Selected Papers of #AoIR2017: The 18th Annual Conference of the Association of Internet Researchers Tartu, Estonia.
Goetomo, F. (2016). Esports in Korea: A study on League of Legends Team Performances on the Share Price Owning Corporations. CMC Senior Theses. 1356.
Gommesen, N. (2012). The Affective Audience in Professional e-Sport: An Exploration of Spectators, and their Impact on Video Game Playing (Master’s thesis). IT University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen.
Granados, S. (2016). Introduction à l’Esport. The next big thing.
Gray, K. L. (2013). Collective Organizing, Individual Resistance, or Asshole Griefers? An Ethnographic Analysis of Women of Color in Xbox Live. Ada: A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology, 2.
Gray, K. L. (2017). They’re Just Too Urban’: Black Gamers Streaming on Twitch. Digital sociologies, 1, 355-368.
Granados, S. (2016). Introduction à l’Esport. The Next Big Thing.
Grenke, T. (2018). The Effort for eSport Events is Significantly Higher. Stadiaworld/ Sports venues, 40-41.
Griffiths, M. D., Davies, M. N., & Chappell, D. (2003). Breaking the Stereotype: the Case of Online Gaming. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6, 81–91.
Griffiths, M. D. (2017). The Psychosocial Impact of Professional Gambling, Professional Video Gaming & eSports. Casino & Gaming International, 28, 59-63.
Griffiths, R. P., Eastin, M. S., & Cicchirillo, V. (2016). Competitive Video Game Play: An Investigation of Identification and Competition. Communication Research, 43(4), 468-486.
Groen, M. (2013). Exclusion and Inclusion of Women in E-sport and the Example of StarCraft: Wings of Liberty. In K. Mitgutsch, S. Huber, J. Wimmer, M. Wagner & H. Rosenstingl (Eds.), Context Matters (pp. 235–240). Vienna: New Academic Press.
Groen, M. (2016). (Un)Doing Gender? Female Tournaments in the E-Sports Scene. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations (IJGCMS), 8(4), 2537.
Groen, M. (2018). Habitus in Cyberspace: Gendered Dynamics in e-Sports Culture. Proceedings of the Se­mi­nar on eS­ports, Exer­ga­ming, and Fan­ta­sy Lea­gues, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
Grubic, D., Smith-Ditizio, A. A., & Smith, A. D. (2017). ESports: A New Era of Spectator Games.
Grutzik, P., Higgins, J., & Tran, L. (2017). Predicting Outcomes of Professional DotA 2 Matches.
Guorui, Z. (2012). Bibliometric Analysis on e-Sports in China. Advances in Computer Science and Engineering, AISC 141, 111-118.


Hallmann, K., & Giel, T. (2018). eSports – Competitive Sports or Recreational Activity? Sports Management Review, 21(1), 14-20.
Hamari, J., & Sjoeblom, M. (2016). What is eSports and Why do People Watch it? Internet Research, 27(2), 211-232.
Hamilton, J. (2019). The Rise of Esports. ITNOW, 61(3), 28-29.
Hamilton, W., Garretson, O., & Kerne, A. (2014, April). Streaming on Twitch: Fostering Participatory Communities of Play within Live Mixed Media. Paper Presented at CHI 2014, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Hamilton, W., Kerne, A., & Robbins, T. (2012, October). High-Performance Pen + Touch Modality Interactions: A Real-Time Strategy Game eSports Context. Paper presented at UIST’12, Cambridge, MA.
Hardenstein, T. (2017). Skins in the Game: Counter-Strike, Esports, and the Shady World of Online Gambling. Unpublished Manuscript.
Harper, T. (2010). The Art of War Fighting Games, Performativity, and Social Game Play (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio University, Athens, OH.
Harper, T. (2014). The Culture of Digital Fighting Games: Performance and Practice. New York, NY: Routledge.
Harry, D. (2012). Designing Complementary Communication Systems (Doctoral dissertation). MIT Media Lab, Cambridge, MA.
Harttung, J. (2015). The Issue of “Deep Control” in Professional E-Sports – A Critical Analysis of Intellectual Property Structures in Electronic Gaming (Master’s thesis). University of Toronto, Toronto.
Hebbel-Seeger, A. (2012). The Relationship Between Real Sports and Digital Adaptation in e-Sport Gaming. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 13(2), 43 – 54.
Hebbel-Seeger, A., & Siemers, L. (2018). eSport im Profi-Fußball der DFL: zu Erwartungen, Zielen und Markeneinfluss. Sciamus – Sport und Management, 2/2018, 42-58.
Heere, B. (2018). Embracing the Sportification of Society: Defining e-Sports Through a Polymorphic View on Sport. Sport Management Review, 21(1), 21-24.
Heinz, J., & Ströh, A. (2017). The eSports Market and eSports Sponsoring. Marburg: Tectum.
Hemphill, D. (2005). Cybersport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 32(2), 195–207.
Hemphill, D. (2015). Cybersport. In C. Torres (Ed.), The Bloomsbury Companion to the Philosophy of Sport (pp. 346–348). Sydney, Australia: Bloomsbury.
Hentsch, C.-H. (2018). Die Urheberrechte der Publisher bei eSport: vertragliche Ausgestaltung der Rechteeinräumung bei Computerspielen. Multimedia und Recht, 3-6.
Hewitt, E. (2014). Will eSports Ever Become Widely Accepted as Official Sports and How will they Affect the Way we Entertain Ourselves if They do? Computers for everyone, 81-83.
Higgins, M. G. (2020). Esports. Saddleback Educational Publishing.
Hilgert, F., & Eickhoff, V. (2018). Jugenschutz im eSport: Rechtsfragen und REgelungen für minderjährige Spieler und Zuschauer bei eSport-Veranstaltungen. Multimedia und Recht, 16-19.
Hiltscher, J., & Scholz, T. M. (2017). eSports Yearbook 2015/16. Norderstedt: Books on Demand GmbH.
Hiltscher, J., & Scholz, T. M. (2019). eSports Yearbook 2017/18. Norderstedt: Books on Demand GmbH.
Hilvert-Bruce, Z., Neil, J. T., Sjoblom, M., & Hamari, J. (2018). Social Motivations of Live-streaming Viewer Engagement on Twitch. Computers in Human Behavior, 84, 58-67.
Himmelstein, D., Liu, Y., & Shapiro, J. L. (2017). An Exploration of Mental Skills Among Competitive League of Legend Players. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 9(2), 1–21.
Hinnant, N. (2013). Practicing Work, Perfecting Play: League of Legendsand the Sentimental Education of e-Sports (Master’s thesis). Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.
Hjorth, L., & Chan, D. (Eds.). (2009). Locating the Game: Gaming Cultures in/and the Asia-Pacific. New York, NY: Routledge.

Hodge, V., Devlin, S., Sephton, N., Block, F., Drachen, A., & Cowling, P. (2017). Win Prediction in Esports: Mixed-Rank Match Prediction in Multi-player Online Battle Arena Games. arXiv preprint arXiv:1711.06498.
Holden, J. T., & Baker, T. A. (2019). The Econtractor? Defining the Esports Employment Relationship, American Business Law Journal, 56(2), 391-440.
Holden, J. T., Kaburakis, A., & Rodenberg, R. M. (2018). Esports: Children, Stimulants, and Video Gaming-induced Inactivity. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 54(8), 830–831.
Holden, J. T., Rodenberg, R. M., & Kaburakis, A. (2017). Esports Corruption: Gambling, Doping, and Global Governance. Maryland Journal of Internation Law, 32(1), 236-273.
Holden, J. T., Kaburakis, A., & Rodenberg R. M. (2017). The Future is Now: eSports Policy Considerations and Potential Litigation. Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport, 27, 46–78.
Holden, J. T., Kabourakis, A., Tweedie,  J. W. (2019). Virtue(al) Games — Real Drugs. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 13(1), 19-32.
Hollist, K. E. (2015). Time to be Grown-ups About Video Gaming: The Rising eSports Industry and the Need for Regulation. Arizona Law Review, 57, 823-847.
Holt, J. (2016). Virtual Domains for Sports and Games. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 10(1),5-13.
Hope, A. (2014). The Evolution of the Electronic Sports Entertainment Industry and its Popularity. In J. Sharp & R. Self (Eds.), Computers for Everyone (pp. 87-89).
Howard, M. (2018). Esport: Professional League of Legends as Cultural History (Master’s thesis). University of Houston, Houston, TX.
Hüttermann, M. (2019). eSport Schweiz 2019. Retrieved from
Huhh, J. (2008). Culture and Business of PC Bangs in Korea. Games and Culture, 3(1), 26–37.
Huk, T. (2019). The Social Context of the Benefits Achieved in eSport. The New Educational Review, 55, 160-169.
Hums, M. A., MacLean, J. C. (2018). Governance and Policy in Sport Organizations. Routledge.
Hutchins, B. (2008). Signs of Meta-change in Second Modernity: The Growth of e-Sport and the World Cyber Games. New Media and Society, 10(6), 851–869.
Hutchins, B. & Rowe, D. (2012). Sport Beyond Television: The Internet, Digital Media and the Rise of Networked Media Sport. London: Routledge.


Irwin, S. V., & Naweed, A. (2018). BM’ing, Throwing, Bug Exploiting, and Other Forms of (Un)Sportsmanlike Behavior in CS:GO Esports. Games and Culture
Ismangil, M. (2018). (Re)creating the Nation Online: Nationalism in Chinese Dota 2 Fandom. Asiascape: Digital Asia, 5(3).


Jagersberger, T. (2016). Virtual Reality eSport: welche Entwicklungen müssen im Virtual Reality Bereich stattfinden, um eSport mit Virtual Reality-Devices verbinden zu können? (Magisterarbeit). Fachhochschule Salzburg, Salzburg.
Jagnow, H., & Baumann, A. (2018). eSport aus verbandlicher Perspektive: Rechtsbegriff, Regulierungspraxis und aktuelle rechtliche Herausforderungen. MultiMedia und Recht, 8/2018, 12-15.
Jalonen, H. (2019). The Value of E-Sports Is in the Eye of the Beholder, But Can E-Sports Operators Influencce What the Spectators See? Advances in Applied Sociology, 9, 306-329.
Jang, W. W., & Byon, K. K. (2019). Antecedents and Consequence Associated with eSports Gameplay. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsoring.
Jang, W. W., & Byon K. K. (2020). Antecedents of Esports Gameplay Intention: Genre as a Moderator. Computers in Human Behavior.
Jansz, J., & Martens, L. (2005). Gaming at a LAN Event: The Social Context of Playing Video Games. New Media & Society, 7, 333–355.
Janusz, A., Slezak, D., Stawicki, S., & Stencel, K. (2018). SENSEI: An Intelligent Advisory System for the eSport Community and Casual Players. 2018 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI).
Jarrett, J. (2016). Critically Approaching the Playful and Participatory Genealogy of MOBAs. In DiGRAFDG.
Jenny, S. E., Chung, J. J., Rademaker, S. M., & Schary, D. P. (2017). Learning a Sport Through Video Gaming: A Mixed-methods Experimental Study. Loading… Journal of the Canadian Gaming Studies Organization, 10(17), 1-20.
Jenny, S. E., Keiper, M. C., Taylor, B. J., Williams, D. P., Gawrysiak, J., Manning, R. D., & Tutka, P. M. (2018). eSports Venues. Journal of Applied Sport Management, 10(1), 34-49.
Jenny, S., Hushman, G., & Hushman, C. (2013). Pre-service Teachers’ Perceptions of Motion-based Video Gaming in Physical Education. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 9(1), 96-111.
Jenny, S. E., Manning, R. D., Keiper, M. C., & Olrich, T. W. (2016). Virtual(ly) Athletes: Where eSports fit Within the Definition of ‘Sport’. Quest, 69(1), 1-18.
Jenny, S. E., Noble, K. M., Schary, D. P., & Hamill, S. D. (2018). Virtual and Authentic Tennis: Differences and Similarities of Three Common Tennis Strokes Performed by Collegiate Players. FACTA UNIVERSITATIS Series: Physical Education and Sport16(3), 525 – 541. doi: 10.22190/FUPES181218048J
Jenny, S. E., & Schary, D. P. (2016). Virtual and “Real-life” Wall/Rock Climbing: Motor Movement Comparisons and Video Gaming Pedagogical Perceptions. SportsTechnology, 8(3), 1-12.
Jenny, S. E., & Schary, D. P. (2015). Motion-based Video Game and Authentic Wall/Rock Climbing: Motivations and Perceptions of Novice Climbers. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 11(1), 35-49.
Jenny, S. & Schary, D. (2014). Exploring the Effectiveness of Learning American Football Through Playing the Video Game “Madden NFL”. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 10(1), 72-87.
Jenny, S.E., Schary, D. P., Noble, K. M. & Hamill, S. D. (2017). The Effectiveness of Developing Motor Skills Through Motion-based Video Gaming: A Review. Simulation & Gaming, 48(6), 722-734.
Ji, Z., & Hanna, R. C. (2020). Gamers First – How Consumer Preferences Impact eSports Media Offerings. International Journal on Media Management, 22(1), 13-29.
Jin, D.Y. (2010). ESports and Television Business in the Digital Economy. In D. Jin (Ed.), Korea’s online gaming empire (pp. 59–79). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Jin, D. Y. (2010). Korea’s Online Gaming Empire. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Jin, D. Y. (2017, February). Smartland Korea: Mobile Communication, Culture, and Society. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.
Jin, D. Y. (2020). Historiography of Korean Esports: Perspective on Spectatorship. International Journal of Communication, 14, 3727-3745.
Jin, D. Y., & Chee, F. (2009). The Politics of Online Gaming. In L. Hjorth & D. Chan (Eds.), Gaming Cultures and Place in Asia- Pacific (pp. 19-38)., New York, NY: Routledge
Johnson, M. R., & Woodcock, J. (2017). Fighting Games and Go: Exploring the Aesthetics of Play in Professional Gaming. Thesis 11, 138(1), 26–45.
Johnson, M. R., & Woodcock, J. (2017). ‘It’s like the Gold Rush‘: The Lives and Careers of Professional Video Game Streamers on Information, Communication and Society, published online 16 October.
Jonasson, K. (2016). Broadband and Circuits: the Place of Public Gaming in the History of Sport. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 10(1), 5-13.
Jonasson, K., & Thiborg, J. (2010). Electronic Sport and its Impact on Future Sport. Sport in Society, 13(2), 287–299.
Jonsson, J. (2018). The Psycho-social Work Environment of e-Sport Professionals: Applying the Job Demands-resources Theory to Pro-players (Master’s thesis). Universität Umea, Umea.


Kadan, A. M., Li, L., & Chen, T. (2018). Modeling and Analysis of Feautures of Team Play Strategies in eSports Applications. Sovremennye Informacionnye Technologii i IT-obrazovanie, 14 (2), 397-407.
Kainz, F., Haupt, T., & Werner, C. (2018). “eSport”: Mehr als eine momentane Spielerei. Causa Sport, 2/2018, 153-160.
Kajastila, R., & Hamalainen, P. (2015). Motion Games in Real Sports Environments. Interactions, March-April.
Kang, C. (2019). A Polymorphic Approach to Esports Betting. Brigham Young University Prelaw Review, 33 (7), 1-10.
Kang, J. O., Kang, K. D., Lee, J. W.,, Nam, J. J., & Han, D. H. (2020). Comparison of Psychologicyl and Cognitive Characteristics between professional Internet Game Players and Professional Baseball Players. International Journal of Environmental Research in Public Health, 17, 1-12.
Kane, D., & Spradley, B. D. (2017). Recognizing Esports as a Sport. The Sport Journal, published online 11 May.
Karakus, E. C. (2015). Comparing Traditional Sports and Electronic Sports (Master’s dissertation). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.
Karhulahti, V.-M. (2017). Reconsidering Esport: Economics and Executive Ownership. Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research, Volume LXXIV, 43-53.
Karhulahti, V.-M. & Kimppa, K. (2018). “Two Queens and a Pwn, Please.” An Ethics for Purchase, Loot, and Advantage Design in eSports. In Proceedings of the 2nd International GamiFIN Conference (pp. 115-122), Pori, Finland.
Karhulahti, V.-M. (2016). Prank, Troll, Gross and Gore: Performance Issues in Esport Live-Streaming. In Proceedings of the First International Joint Conference of DiGRA and FDG, 1–5 August 2016. Dundee, Scotland: Digital Games Research Association and Society for the Advancement of the Science of Digital Games.
Kari, T., & Karhulahti, V.-M. (2016). Do E-Athletes Move? A Study on Training and Physical Exercise in Elite E-Sports. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 8(4), 53–66.
Kari, T., Siutila, M. & Karhulahti, V.-M. (2018). An Extended Study on Training and Physical Exercise in Esports. In B. R. Dubbels (Ed.), Exploring the Cognitive, Social, Cultural, and Psychological Aspects of Gaming and Simulations (pp. 270-292).
Karsenti, T., & Bugmann, J. (2018). Le e-sport, un nouveau « sport » numérique universitaire?  Revue internationale des technologies en pédagogie universitaire, 15(1).
Kates, A., & Clapperton, G. (2015). The Debate: For & Against e-Sports. Engineering & Technology, 10(1), 28.
Kauweloa, S., Winter, J. S. (2016). Collegiate E-sports as Work or Play. In Proceedings of 1st International Joint Conference of DiGRA and FDG.
Kauweloa, N., & Winter, J. (2019, January). Taking College Esports Seriously. In Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
Kayane. (2016). Parcours d’une e-combattante. 404 éditions.
Kaytoue, M., & Raïssi, C. (2012, April). Watch me Playing, I am a Professional. In WWW 2012 Companion. Lyon, France.
Keiper, M. C., Manning, R. D., Jenny, S. E., Olrich, T., & Croft, C. (2017). No Reason to LoL at LoL: the Addition of eSports to Intercollegiate Atheltic Departments. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 11(2), 143-160.
Kelly, S. M., & Sigmon, K. A. (2018). The Key to Key Presses: eSports Game Input Streaming and Copyright Protection. Interact Entertain Law Review, 1(1), 2–16.
Kennedy, H. W. (2006). Illegitimate, Monstrous and Out There: Female ‘Quake’ Players and Inappropriate Pleasures. In J. Hollows & R. P. (Eds.), Feminism in Popular Culture (pp. 183-201). Oxford: Berg.
Kesselman, M.-S. (2014). The Rapid Growth of E-Sports and the Lagging Law. The Journal of High Technology Law, November 4.
Khan, I. (2017). Control Freak: How an Injured eSports Athlete Got Back into the Game. CUNY Academic Works, Fall 2017.
Khromov, N., Korotin, A., Lange, A., Stepanov, A., Burnaev, E., & Somov, A. (2018a). Esports Athletes and Players: a Comparative Study. arXiv preprint arXiv:1812.03200.
Khromov, N., Korotin, A., Lange, A., Stepanov, A., Burnaev, E., & Somov, A. (2018b). Esports Athletes and Players: a Comparative Study. Retrieved from
Kim, S. H., & Thomas, M. K. (2015). A Stage Theory Model of Professional Video Game Players in South Korea: The Socio-cultural Dimensions of the Development of Expertise. Asian Journal of Information Technology, 14(5), 176–186.
Kim, Y. (2013, December). A Study of Wellness Core Technology and E-Sports. In IT Convergence and Security Proceedings. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE.
Kim, Y., Ko, Y., Lee, S. & Ross, S.D. (2007). An Exploration of Motives in Online Sport Video Gaming. Book of Abstracts of North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM), 225-226.
Kim, Y., & Ross, S. D. (2006). An Exploration of Motives in Sport Video Gaming. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 8(1), 34-46.
Kim, Y. J., Choi, M. J., & Cha, Y.S. (2012, July). A Study on the Impact of E-sports Participation by Students with Mental Retardation on Their Self-Confidence and Social Skills. In Ubiquitous and Future Networks Conference Proceedings (pp. 471–475). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE.
Kim, Y. J., Engel, D. Wooley, A. W., Lin, J. Y. T., McArthur, N., & Malone, T. W.  (2017). What Makes a Strong Team?: Using Collective Intelligence to Predict Team Performance in League of Legends. CSCW, 2316-2329.
Kirkegaard, E. O. W. (2018). Is National Mental Sport Ability a Sign of Intelligence? An Analysis of the Top Players of 12 Mental Sports.
Kocadag, M. (2019). Investigating Psychological Well-Beeing Levels of Teenagers Interested in Esport Career. Research on Education and Psychology, 3(1), 1-10.
Körber, T., & Schuchmann, J. (2016). Rechtlicher Handlungsbedarf im eSport. Stadionwelt inside.
Koivisto, J., & Hamari, J. (Eds.). (2018, May). GamiFIN Conference 2018: Proceedings of the 2nd International GamiFIN Conference, Pori, Finland.
Konstantinova, K., Bulygin, D., Okopny, P., & Musabirov, I. (2018). Online Communication of eSports Viewers: Topic Modeling Approach. In A. Cheok, M. Inami & T. Romão (Eds.), ACE 2017. Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology (pp. 608–613). Cham: Springer.
Kopp, J. (2017). Ejes para una investigación en deportes electrónicos. Revista Lúdicamente, 6(11).
Kordyaka, B. (2018). Digital Poison – Approaching a Theory of Toxic Behavior in MOBA Games. In Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS2018). San Francisco, CA.
Kordyaka, B., & Hribersek, S. (2019). Crafting Identity in League of Legends – Purchases as a Tool to Achieve Desired Impressions. In Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-52). Maui, HI.
Kordyaka, B., Klesel, M., & Jahn, K. (2019). Perpetrators in League of Legends: Scale Development and Validation of Toxic Behavior. In Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-52). Maui, HI.
Kordyaka, B., Jahn, K., & Niehaves, B. (2020). To Diversify or Not? Uncovering the Effects of Identification and Media Engagement on Franchise Loyalty in eSports. International Journal on Media Management, 22(1), 49-66.
Korotin, A., Khromov, N., Stepanov, A., Lange, A., Burnaev, E., & Somov, A. (2019). Towards Understanding of eSports Athletes’ Potentialities: The Sensing System for Data Collection and Analysis. Retrieved from
Kou, Y., & Gui, X. (2014, October). Playing with Strangers: Understanding temporary Teams in League of Legends. In Proceedings of the first ACM SIGCHI annual symposium on Computer-human interaction in play (pp. 161-169). ACM.
Kou, Y., & Nardi, B. (2013). Regulating Anti-social behavior on the Internet: The Example of League of Legends.
Kou, Y. & Nardi, B. (2014). Governance in League of Legends: A Hybrid System.
Kordyaka, B., Jahn, K., & Niehaves, B. (2020). To Diversify or Not? Uncovering the Effects of Identification and Media Engagement on Franchise Loyalty in eSports. International Journal on Media Management, 22(1), 49-66.
Kow, Y. M., & Young, T. (2013). Media Technologies and Learning in the StarCraft eSport Community. CSCW ’13. San Antonio, TX.
Kow, Y. M., Young, T., & Salen Tekinbas, K. (2014). Crafting the Metagame: Connected Learning in the StarCraft 2 Community. Irvine, CA: Digital Media and Learning Research Hub.
Kozachuk, J., Foroughi, C., Freeman, G. (2016). Exploring Electronic Sports: An Interdisciplinary Approach. In Proceedings of the 2016 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (pp. 2118–2122).
Kunz, R., Bauhofer, M., & Mutterlein, J. (2017). User Acceptance of Sport-related Virtual Reality. EMMA Conference.
Kurt, S., & Nothelfer, N. (2020). Die Anwendbarkeit des technischen Arbeitsschutzrechts bei spielbezogenen eSport-Tätigkeiten. Recht der Arbeit (in release).
Kuznekoff, J. H. & Rose, L. M. (2013). Communication in Multiplayer Gaming: Examining Player Responses to Gender Cues. New Media & Society, 15(4), 541-556.
Kwak, H., Blackburn, J., & Han, S. (2015). Exploring Cyberbullying and Other Toxic Behavior in Team Competition Online Games. Seoul: CHI.


Laitila, O., & Rauhansalo, T. (2018). Study on eSports Industry in Finland. In Proceedings of the Se­mi­nar on eS­ports, Exer­ga­ming, and Fan­ta­sy Lea­gues. University of Jyväskylä: Finland.
Leavitt, A., Keegan, B. C., & Clark, J. (2016, May). Ping to Win?: Non-verbal Communication and Team Performance in Competitive Online Multiplayer Games. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 4337-4350). ACM.
Lee, A. J. (2005). E-Sports as a Growing Industry. Research Report. Seoul: Samsung Economic Research Institute.
Lee, A. J. & Ko, J. M. (2005). The Current State and Development Plan of e-Sports Industry. Samsung Economic Research Institute.
Lee, C. (n.d.). The Revolution of StarCraft Network Traffic. Self-Published.
Lee, D., & Schoenstedt, L. J. (2012). Comparison of eSports and Traditional Sports Consumption Motives. Journal of Research, 6(2), 39-44.
Lee, J. S., & Steinkuehler, C. (2019). Esports as a Catalysator for Connected Learning: The North American Scholastic Esports Federation. XRDS, 25(4), 54-59.
Lee, J.-Y., An, J.-W., & Lee, S.-W. (2014). Factors Affecting eSports Audience Satisfaction – The Case of League of Legends. Journal of Korea Game Society, 14(3), 35–46.
Lee, S., An, J., & Lee, J. (2014, February). The Relationship between E-Sports Viewing Motives and Satisfaction: The Case of League of Legends. In J. Strouhal (Ed.), Proceedings of International Conference on Business, Management & Corporate Social Responsibility (pp. 33–36). Batam, Indonesia: ICEHM.
Lee, S.-S., Tan, W. P., Lin, H.-Y., Lin, C. W., & Teo, K. (2018). Discussion on the Consumers Motivation to Watch E-sports Game and the Follow-up Behaviors Intention.
Lefebvre, F. (2016). Le développement de l’eSport en France permet-il la mise en place d’une dynamique de professionnalisation des acteurs de cette industrie économique ? Le cas des joueurs professionnels d’eSport (Master’s thesis).  Université Paris Sud Saclay, Orsay-Ville.
Leforestier, T. (2019). Difference betweeen brands’ and charities’ perception on the French esport scence (Master’s thesis). Dublin Business School, Dublin.
Leonard, D. (2008). To the White Extreme in the Mainstream: Manhood and White Youth Culture in a Virtual Sports World. In M. D. Giardina & M. K. Donnelly (Eds.), Youth Culture and Sport (pp. 91-112). New York, NY: Routledge.
Li, R. (2017). Good Luck Have Fun: The Rise of Esports. New York, NY: Skyhorse.
Lim, S. H. (2018). Electronic Football Participation vs. Traditional Football Engagements in Korea. Research in Dance and Physical Education, 2(1), 1-15.
Lipovaya, V. (2019). Esports: Opportunities for Future Ergonomic Studies. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 824, 1937–1948.
Lipovaya, V., Lima, Y., Grillo, P., Barbosa, C. E., Souza, J. M., & Duarte, F. J. (2018). Coordination, Communication, and Competition in eSports: A Comparative Analysis of Teams in Two Action Games. In Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work-Exploratory Papers, Reports of the European Society for Socially Embedded Technologies.
Llorens, M. (2017). eSport Gaming: The Rise of a New Sports Practice. Sports, Ethics and Philosophy, 11(4), 464–476.
Lokhman, N., Karashchuk, O., & Kornilova, O. (2018). Analysis of eSports as a Commercial Activity. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 16 (1), 207-213.
Lopez, J. (2016). Le développement de l’eSports confronté au cadre juridique actuel (Master’s Thesis). Université Paris 1 Sorbonne, Paris.
Lopez Frias, F. J., & Perez Trivino, J. L. (2016). Will Robots Ever Play Sports. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 101, 67-8.
Lopez Frias, F. J. (2016). The Defining Components of the Cyborg: Cyborg-athletes, Fictional or Real? Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 10(1), 97-111.
Lopez-Gonzalez, H., & Griffiths, M. (2016). Understanding the Convergence of Markets in Online Sports Betting. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 53(7), 807–823.
Low-Kam, C., C. Raïssi, M. Kaytoue, & Pei, J. (2013). Mining Statistically Significant Sequential Patterns. ICDM2013
Lowood, H. (2007). It’s not Easy Being Green: Real-time Game Performance in Warcraft. In B. Arkins & T. Krzywinska (Eds.), Videogame/Player/Text (pp. 83-100), Manchester: Palgrave.
Lowood, H. Forthcoming. ‘Beyond the Game’: The Olympic Ideal and Competitive e-Sports. In D. Thomas & J. Fouts (Eds.), Play and Politics: Games, Civic Engagement, and Social Activism.
Lu, Z. (2016). From E-Heroin to E-Sports: The Development of Competitive Gaming in China. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 33(18), 2186-2206.


Ma, H., Wu, Y., & Wu, X. (2013). Research on Essential Difference of E-sport and Online Game. Informatics and Management Science V, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering 208.
Macey, J. (2020). What Predicts eSports betting? A Study on Consumption of Video Games, eSports, Gambling and Demographic Factors. New Media & Society, 1-25.
Macey, J., & Hamari, J. (2018). Investigating Relationships Between Video Gaming, Spectating eSports, and Gambling. Computers in Human Behavior, 80, 344-353.
Macey, J., & Hamari, J. (2019). eSports, Skins and Loot Boxes: Participants, Practices and Problematic Behaviour Associated with Emergent Forms of Gambling. New Media & Society, 21(1), 20–41.
Macheda, N. (2015). Échec, frustration et induction d’émotions complexes dans les jeux en ligne multijoueur. Le cas de League of Legends (Mémoire de Master). Université de Lorraine.
Mackrodt, B. (2017). Team Play – Was Counter Strike-Spielern bei virtueller Teamarbeit gelingt und was nicht. Wiesbaden: Springer.
Maher, B. (2016). Can a Video Game Company Tame Toxic Behaviour?. Nature, 531(7596), 568-571.
Makowski, G. (2017). Eine empirische Untersuchung zur Etablierung von e-Sport am Beispiel ausgewählter Clubs der Fußball-Bundesliga.
Malik, P. (2019). Esports: A Competitive Electronic Sports. International Journal of Yogic, Human Movement and Sports Science, 4(1), 87-90.
Mandryk, R. L., & Birk, M. V. (2019). The Potential of Game-based Digital Biomarkers for Modeling Mental Health. JMIR mental health, 6(4).
Mangeloja, E. (2019). Economics of Esports. Electronic Journal of Business  Ethics and Organization Studies, 24(4), 34-42.
Marcano Larez, B. (2012). Características sociológicas de videojugadores online y el e-sport. El caso de Call of Duty. Pedagogía Social. Revista Interuniversitaria, (19).
Maric, J. (2011). Electronic Sport: How Pro-Gaming Negotiates Territorial Belonging and Gender. Platform: Journal of Media and Communication, ECREA Special Issue, 6–23.
Maric, J. (2011). eSport im TV: Fernsehaneignung einer Computerspielkultur. In M. Elsler (Ed.), Die Aneignung von Medienkultur (pp. 193-213). VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
Marques, N. (2019). The Role of Breakthrough Technologies in the Growth of Esports. IEEE Potentials May/June, 24-26.
Martinelli, D. (2019). The Challenges of Implementing a Governing Body for Regulating ESports. University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review, 26, 499-524.
Martinelli, D. (2017). Skin Gambling: Have We Found The Millennial Goldmine Or Imminent Trouble?. Gaming Law Review, 21(8), 557-565.
Matončik, M. (2015). e-Sports: Playing Just for Fun or Playing to Satisfy Life Goals? Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 208-211.
Matsui, A., Sapienza, A., & Ferrera, E. (2019). Does Streaming Esports Affect Players’ Behavior and Performance. Games and Culture,
Mazari, I., & Flierl, M. (2009). Gaming und soziale (Online-)Netzwerke. Retrieved from
McCauley, B., Nguyen, T. H. T., McDonald, M., & Wearing, S. (2020). Digital Gaming Culture in Vietnam: An Exploratory Study. Leisure Studies.
McCauley, B., Tierney, K., & Tokbaeva, D. (2020). Shaping a Regional Offline eSports Market: Understanding How Jönköping, the ‘City of DreamHack’, Takes URL to IRL. International Journal on Media Management, 22(1), 30-48.
McCrea, C. (2009). Watching Starcraft, Strategy and South Korea. In L. Hjorth & D. Chan (Eds.), Gaming Cultures and Place in Asia-Pacific (pp. 179–193). New York: Routledge
McCutcheon, C., Hitchens, M., & Drachen, A. (2017). eSport vs. irlSport. ACE 2017: Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology: 531–542.
McTee, M. (2014). E-Sports: More Than Just a Fad. 10 Oklahoma Journal of Law & Technology, 70, 1–27.
Meadows, J. H. (2018). Esports. In A. E. Grant & J. H. Meadows (Eds.), Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 16th edition.
Menasce, R. M. From Casual to Professional: How Brazilians Achieved Esports Success in Counter-Strike: Global Offensive. Northeastern University, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2017.
Miah, A. (2017). Sport 2.0 – Transforming Sports for a Digital World. Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
Miah, A., & Fenton, A. (2020). Esports in the Olympic & Paralympic Games: The Business Case for Integration. In D. Chatziefstathiou, B. Garcia & B. Séguin (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Olympic and Paralympic Games, Oxon and New York, NY: Routledge.
Miroff, M. (2018). Tiebreaker: An Antitrust Analysis of Esports. Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems, 52(2), 177-223.
Misra, A., & Danwani, A. (2012). The World of eSports Through a Girl Gamer’s Eye. In J. Christophers & T. M. Scholz (Eds.), Esports Year Book 2011/12 (pp. 59-61). Norderstedt: Books on Demand GmbH.
Moeller, R. M., Esplin, B., & Conway, S. (2009). Cheesers, Pullers, and Glitchers: The Rhetoric of Sportsmanship and the Discourse of Online Sports Gamers. Game Studies, 9(2).
Moisy, M., & Mora, P. (2007). Rencontre avec les champions : les goodgame, in F. Beau (Ed.), avec la collaboration de D. Kaplan et L. Gille, Culture d’Univers. Jeux en réseaux, mondes virtuels, le nouvel âge de la société numérique, Limoges, FYP Éditions, 141-147.
Molho V. & Guillot J.-P. (2016). L’e-sport, véritable discipline sportive. La semaine juridique, entreprise et affaires, (41), 22-25.
Mora-Cantallops, M., & Sicilia, M. Á. (2018a). Team Efficiency and Network Structure: The Case of Professional League of Legends. Social Networks, 58, 105-115.
Mora-Cantallops, M., & Sicilia, M. Á. (2018b). MOBA Games: A Literature Review. Entertainment Computing.
Mora-Cantallops, M., & Sicilia, M. Á. (2018c). Player-centric Networks in League of Legends. Social Networks, 55, 149-159.
Mora-Cantallops, M., & Sicilia, M. A. (2018d). Exploring Player Experience in Ranked League of Legends. Behavior and Information Technology, 37(12), 1224–1236.
Mora, P., & Héas, S. (2002). Le corps dans l’e-sport. Journées d’études « Internet, jeu et socialisation »
Mora, P., & Heás, S. (2003). Du joueur de jeux vidéo à l’e-sportif: vers un professionnalisme florissant de l’élite?. La pratique du jeu vidéo : réalité ou virtualité, 131-146.
Mora, P. (2005). Derrière l’e-sport : un conflit d’experts de jeux réseaux compétitifs. In T. Fortin, P. Mora & L. Trémel (Eds.), Les jeux vidéo : pratiques, contenus et enjeux sociaux (pp. 25-121). Paris, L’Harmattan, coll. « Champs Visuels ».
Mora, P. (2009). Des J.O à la FFJV : PES et la construction sociale du sport . Les cahiers du jeu vidéo, n° 2, Football Stories, pix’n love, 140-150.
Mora, P., & Héas, S. (2005). From Videogamer to e-Sportsman: Toward a Growing Professionalism of World-class Players?. In M. Bittanti & S. Morris (Eds.), Doom: Giocare in Prima Persona. Milano: Costa & Nolan. [Originally published in French in Consommations et Sociétés, special videogames issue, coordinated by Mélanie Roustan. Translated to Italian for Doombook and English version available online.]
Morris, S. (2003). WADs, Bots and Mods Multiplayer FPS Games as Co-creative Media. In DiGRA Conference.
Mosele, J. (2018). Artificial Intelligence in the Sport Industry (Master’s thesis). Politecnico Di Milano, Milano.
Müller-Lietzkow, J. (2007). Die Veränderung des traditionellen Sportbildes in Gesellschaft und Politik durch eSport. Computerspiele und Politik. Zur Konstruktion von Politik und Gesellschaft in Computerspielen, 221-247.
Muniowski, L. (2018). Geek is the New Jock: The Relationship between Geek Culture and Sports. In Age of the Geek: Depictions of Nerds and Geeks in Popular Media. New York, NY: Palgrave McMillan.
Musabirov, I., Nulygin, D., Okopny, P., & Konstantinova, K. (2018). Between an Arena and a Sports Bar: Online Chats of Esports Spectators. Retrieved from


Nagel, M. & Sugishta, K. (2016). Esport: The Fastest Growing Segment of the “Sport” Industry. Sport & Entertainment Review, 2(2), 51–60.
Naubert, S. (2012). Cybersport 2.0: Ethical Dimensions of Videogames as Sport. In The Philosophy of Computer Games Conference.
Neus, F., Nimmermann, F., Wagner, K., & Schramm-Klein, H. (2019, January). Differences and Similarities in Motivation for Offline and Online eSports Event Consumption. In Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
Nguyen, Q. H., & Phan, H. (2016). E-sport Organization and Professional Gamers in Finland (Bachelor’s Thesis). Lahti University. Finland.
Nielsen, R. K. L., & Karhulahti, V. M. (2017). The Problematic Coexistence of Internet Gaming Disorder and eSports. In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games (p. 52). ACM.
Nothelfer, N., & Schlotthauer, P. (2020). (e)Sport im rechtlichen Sinne und privatrechtliche Beziehungen zwischen Clan und eSportler. eSport – Status quo und Entwicklungspotenziale, 49-78.
Nothelfer, N., & Wörner, M. (2020). Grenzen der Vertragsgestaltung im eSport am Beispiel Tfue vs. FaZe Clan. eSport-Recht – Politik, Praxis und Wissenschaft im Dialog (in release).
Novak, A. R., Bennett, K. J. M., Pluss, M. A., & Fransen, J. (2020). Performance Analysis in eSports: Modelling Performance at the 2018 League of Legends World Championship. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 0(0), 1-9.
Nuangjumnong, T. (2015). The Universality of Leadership Behaviors in Virtual Environments: A Case of Esports Players in Thailand. Journal of the Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, 30(3), 105–132.
Nuangjumnong, T. (2016). Development of Leadership through eSports (Doctoral dissertation). Waseda University, Tokyo.
Nufer, G. (2020). e-Sports: Was es ist und wie es sich entwickelt. Reutlinger Diskussionsbeiträge zu Marketing & Management, Hochschule Reutlingen, ESB Business School, Reutlingen.


Olsen, A. (2015). The Evolution of Esports: An analysis of its origin and a look at its prospective future growth as enhanced by Information Technology Management tools (Master’s Thesis). Coventry University, Coventry.
Olshefski, E. G. (2015). Game-Changing Event Definition and Detection in an eSports Corpus. Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on EVENTS at the NAACL-HLT 2015, 77–81.
Olson, C. K. (2013). Sports Videogames and Real-world Exercise. Sports Videogames, 278-294 New York, NY: Routledge.
Owens, M. (2016) What’s in a Name? eSports, Betting, and Gaming Law. Gaming Law Review, 20(7), 567-?.


Paaßen, B., Morgenroth, T., & Stratemeyer, M. (2017). What is a True Gamer? The Male Gamer Stereotype and the Marginalization of Women in Video Game Culture. Sex Roles, 76(7-8), 421-435.
Paberz, C. (2012). Le jeu vidéo comme sport en Corée du Sud. In Hermès, No. 62, Les jeux vidéo. Quand jouer, c’est communiquer, 48-51.
Papaloukas, M. (2018, November). E-Sports Explosion: The Birth of Esports Law or Merely a New Trend Driving Change in Traditional Sports Law?. In 24th IASL International Sports Law Congress.
Paravizo, E., & Luvizoto de Souza, R.R. (2018). Playing for Real: An Exploratory Analysis of Professional Esports Athletes’ Work. IEA 2018: Proceedings of the 20th Congress fo the International Ergonomics Association: 507–515.
Parry, J. (2018). E-sports are Not Sports. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, published online 12 July.
Parshakov, P., & Zavertiaeva, M. (2015). Success in eSports: Does Country Matter? Available at SSRN:
Parshakov, P., Coates, D., & Zavertiaeva, M. (2018). Is Diversity Good or Bad? Evidence from eSports Teams Analysis. Applied Economics, 50(47), 5064-5075.
Parshakov, P., & Coates, D. (2016). Team Vs. Individual Tournaments: Evidence from Prize Structure in Esports. Working Paper.
Patel, R. (2020). Esports, Player Positions, and the Benefits of Unionization. Duke Law & Technology Review, 18(1), 232-248.
Pedraza-Ramirez, I., Musculus, L., Raab., M., & Laborde S. (2020). Setting the Scientific Stage for eSports Psychology: A Systematic Review. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1-34.
Peeples, D., Yen, J., & Weigle, P. (2018). Geeks, Fandoms, and Social Engagement. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics, 27(2), 247-267.
Pereira, R., Wilwert, M. L., & Takase, E. (2016). Contributions of Sport Psychology to the Competitive Gaming: An Experience Report with a Professional Team of League of Legends. International Journal of Applied Psychology, 6(2), 27-30.
Pesa, A. R., Cicin-Sain, D., & Blazevic, T. (2017). New Business Model in the Growing E-Sports Industry. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference “Business & Entrepreneurial Economics – BEE2017”, Brijuni, Croatia.
Peter, S. C., Li, Q., Pfund, R. A., Whelan, J. P., & Meyers, A. W. (2018). Public Stigma Across Addictive Behaviors: Casino Gambling, eSports Gambling, and Internet Gaming. Journal of Gambling Studies, 35, 247-259.

Pfeiffer, A., & Wochenalt, A. (2011). eSport – Eine Analyse von kompetitiven digitalen Spielen. novum eco Verlag.
Pfeiffer, A., Wernbacher, T., Denk, N., & Kriglstein, S. (2020). Do You Love It Already or Do You Still Ignore It? The Two Faces of the Phenomenon Spectatorship in Esports.
Pishichik, V. I., Molokhina, G. A., Petrenko, E. A., & Milova, Y. V. (2019). Features of Mental Activity of Students- eSport Players. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 7(2), 67-76.
Pizzo, A. D., Baker, B. J., Na, S., & Lee, M. A. (2018). eSport vs Sport: A Comparison of Spectator Motives. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 27(2), 108-123.
Pizzo, A. D., Jones, G. J., Funk, D. C., & Hall, S. Navigating the Iron Cage: An Institutional Creation Perspective of Collegiate eSports.
Pluss, M. A., Bennett, K. J. M., Novak, A. R., Panchuk, D., Coutts, A. J., & Fransen, J. (2019). Esports: The Chess of the 21st Century. Frontiers In Psychology, 10.
Pluss, M. A., Novak, A. R., Bennett, K. J. M., Panchuk, D., Coutts, A. J., & Fransen, J. (2020). Perceptual-motor Abilities Underlying Expertise in Esports. Journal of Expertise, 3(2).
Polledri, T. (2016). Amélioration de la focalisation de l’attention dans le jeu vidéo compétitif. (League of Legends) (Master’s Thesis). Université de Montpellier, Montpellier.
Polman, R., Trotter, M., Poulus, D., & Borkoles, E. (2018). eSport Friend or Foe. In Joint International Conference on Serious Games (pp. 3-8). Springer, Cham.
Pope, B. C. (2011). IRL: Creating Cyberspace in Meatspace (Master’s thesis). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati.
Postel, C. (2016). Let’s Play: YouTube and Twitch’s Video Game Footage and a New Approach to Fair Use. Hastings LJ, 68, 1169.
Postigo Fuentes, A. Y., & Fernández Navas, M. (2020). Factores que Influyen el Aprendizaje de Lengua Extranjera en los eSports. Un Estudio de Caso. Qualitative Research in Education, 9(2), 128-159.
Poulus, D., Coulter, T. J., Trotter, M. G., & Polman, R. (2020). Stress and Coping in Esports and the Influence on Mental Toughness. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1-11.


Qian, T. Y., Zhang, J. J., Wang, J. J., & Hulland, J. (2019). Beyond the Game: Dimensions of Esports Online Spectator Demand. Communication & Sport,


Rabu, G., & Reverchon-Billot, M. (2017). Les enjeux juridiques de l’e-sport. Presses Universitaires d’Aix-Marseille.
Rai, L., & Yan, G (2009). Futures Perspectives on Next Generation e-Sports Infrastructure and Exploring Their Benefits. International Journal of Sport Science and Engineering, 3(01), 027-033.
Railsback, D. (2019). Investigating the Human Factors in eSport Performance. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 795, 325–334.
Rambusch, J. (2011). Mind Games Extended: Understanding Gameplay as Situated Activity. (Doctoral Dissertation). Linköping Studies in Science and Technology.
Rambusch, J., et al. (2017). Cognitive Challenges in eSports. Proceedings of the 13th Swecog Conference 2017, Uppsala.
Rambusch, J., Jakobsson, P., & Pargman, D. (2007). Exploring e-Sports: A Case Study of Gameplay in Counter-Strike. In A. Baba (Ed.), Situated Play: Proceedings of the Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) Conference 2007 Tokyo: University of Tokyo.
Ratan, A. R., Taylor, N., Hogan, J., Hogan, T. M. L., & Williams, D. (2015). Stand by Your Man: An Examination of Gender Disparity in League of Legends. Games and Culture, 10(5), 438–462.
Rea, S. C. (2018). Calibrating Play: Sociotemporality in South Korean Digital Gaming Culture. American Anthropologist, published online 02 July.
Rea, S. C. (2019). Chronotopes and Social Types in South Korean Digital Gaming. Signs and Society, 7(1), 115-136.
Recktenwald, D., & Yiwei, D. (2016). Lagging behind Twitch or on its Own Path: Pressure and Perks on Domestic Online Live Streaming in China. In Proceedings of 3rd Annual Chinese DiGRA Conference.
Redelfs, O. (2018). Digitaler Spitzensport. Hamburger Wirtschaft, 03/18, 14-19.
Reeves, S., Laurier, E., & Brown, B. (2006). The Skillful Work of Play in Counter-Strike. In F. Beau (Ed.), Culture d’univers, Limoges, Fyp editions, 130-140.
Reeves, S., Brown, B., & Laurier, E. (2009). Experts at Play: Understanding Skilled Expertise. Games and Culture, 4(3), 205–227.
Reitman, J. G., Anderson-Coto, M. J., Wu, M., Lee, J. S., & Steinkuehler, C. (2019). Esports Research: A Literature Review. Games and Culture,
Reitman, J. G., Anderson, C. G., Deppe, M., & Steinkuehler, C. (Eds.). (2020). Esports Research Conference. Proceedings on the 2019 Esports Research Conference, Pittsburgh, USA. ETC Press.
Richard, G. T., Mckinley, Z., & Ashley, R. (2018). Collegiate eSports as Learning Ecologies: Investigating Collaborative Learning and Cognition During Competitions. Proceedings of DiGRA 2018
Robeers, T., & van den Bulk, H. (2018). Towards an Understanding of Side-Lining Environmental Sustainability in Formula E: Traditional Values and the Emergence of eSports. Athens Journal of Sports, 5(4), 331–350.
Robertson, C. (2015). Wandering the World without Leaving Your Chair: Crossing Borders Through eSports (Master’s Thesis). Georgia Southern Univesity.
Rodier, P. (2017). Jouez sérieux. Le phénomène esport raconté par les gamers. Marabout.
Rogers, J. (2012). Crafting an Industry: An Analysis of Korean StarCraft and Intellectual Properties Law, HARV. J.L. & TECH.[], discussed infra Part V, note 200.
Rogers, R. (2019). Understanding Esports: An Introduction to the Global Phenomenon. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Rollandin, M. (2016). Des compétitions sportives au développement de l’eSport: du football à League of Legends.
Root, J. (2019). eSports Productions upo their Game with Dedicated ‘Player Cams’. TVB Europe, September 2019, 58-59.
Rosell, M. (2017). eSport Gaming: the Rise of a New Sports Practice. Sport Ethics Philosophy, 11(4), 464–476.
Ross, A. E. (2013). The Effects of Multitasking Training in StarCraft II (Doctoral dissertation). Temple University, Phildadelphia.
Rothman, J. (2013). E-sports as a Prism for the Role of Evolving Technology in Intellectual Property. University of Pennsylvania Law Review Online, 116, 317-329.
Rothwell, G., & Shaffer, M. (2019). eSports in K-12 and Post-Secondary Schools. Education Science, 9, 1-10
Rudolf, K., Bickmann, P., Froböse, I., Tholl, C., Wechsler, K., & Grieben, C. (2020). Demographics and Health Behavior of Video Game and eSports Players in Germany: The eSports Study 2019. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 1-14.
Ruvalcaba, O., Shulze, J., Kim, A., Berzenski, S. R., & Otten, M. P. (2018). Women’s Experiences in eSports: Gendered Differences in Peer and Spectator Feedback During Competitive Video Game Play. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 42(4), 295–311.
Ryzhov, I., Tariq, A., & Powell, W. (2011). May the Best Man Win: Simulation Optimization for Match-Making in E-sports. In S. Jain, R. Creasey, J. Himmelspach, K.P. White & M. Fu (Eds.), Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference (pp. 4239–4250), 11–14 December. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE.


Saarnisto, M. (2017). Impact of Sponsorships in eSports on the Buying Behavior (Master’s thesis). Vaasan Ammattikorkeakoulu University of Applied Sciences, Vaasan.
Salice, D. (2010). Federations in eSport. In J. Christophers & T. M. Scholz (Eds.), Esports Year Book 2009 (pp. 85-90). Norderstedt: Books on Demand GmbH.
Salles, R., Durain, J., & Kirchner, A. (2016). E-Sport – La pratique compétitive du jeu vidéo – Rapport intermédiaire mars 2016
Salo, M. (2017). Career Transitions of eSports Athletes: A Proposal for a Research Framework. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations (IJGCMS), 9(2), 22-32.
Sauer, A. (2019). eSport, Netzwerkeffekte und Lindahl-Preise. Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler.
Schaeperkoetter, C. C., Mays, J., Hyland, S. T., & Wilkerson, Z. (2017). The “New” Student Athlete: An Exploratory Examination of Scholarship Esports Players. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport, 10, 1–21.
Schellewald, A. O. (2018a). Desperately Trying to Mediate Immediacy. Press Start, 4(2), 1-17.
Schellewald, A. O. (2018b). Why Do We Watch Others Play? Understanding eSports as Sporting Entertainment. Proceedings of the Se­mi­nar on eS­ports, Exer­ga­ming, and Fan­ta­sy Lea­gues, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
Schmidt, H., & Lehmann, S. (2006). Möglichkeiten durch E-Sport für Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Retrieved from
Schmidt, J., Dreyer, S., & Lampert, C. (2008). Spielen im Netz – Zur Systematisierung des Phänomens “Online Games”.  Retrieved from
Schmidt, M., & Shreffler, M. (2015). Motivations for eSport Consumption: A Road Map for Traditional Sports Online Spectating. 2015 Sport Marketing Association Conference (SMA XIII).
Schmidt, S. L., & Holzmayer, F. (2018). FC Schalke 04 Esports. Decision Making in a Changing Ecosystem. WHU Publishing Case Number CSM-0001, 1–21.
Schmuck, A., & Schmuck, P. (2009). Einflüsse vergesellschaftender Faktoren auf posttraditionale Vergemeinschaftungsformen am Beispiel der eSport-Szene, working paper.
Schneider, S. (2015). eSport Betting: The Intersection of Gaming and Gambling. Gaming Law Review and Economics, 19(6), 419–420.
Schneider, A., & Wendeborn, T. (2019). eSport-Events: Potentiale und Herausforderungen hybrider Erlebniswelten aus Sicht des Eventmarketing. In Zanger, C. (Ed.), Eventforschung. Aktueller Stand und Perspektiven (pp. 90-105). Chemnitz: Springer Gabler.
Schöber, T. (2018). Bildschirm-Athleten: Das Phänomen e-Sports. Books on Demand.
Schöber, T., & Junge, J. (2020). eSports Mosaik: Einführung in die vielfältigen Aspekte des eSports. Institut für Ludologie. Flying Kiwi Media.
Schöber, T., & Junge, J. (2020). eSports in Gesellschaft und Politik: Vom Sportbegriff, über Vorurteile bis zum Verbandswesen. Institut für Ludologie. Flying Kiwi Media.
Schöber, T., & Junge, J. (2020). eSports Leitfaden 2020: Grundlagenwissen für jedermann. Institut für Ludologie. Flying Kiwi Media.
Schörner, C. (2017). ESport und Strafrecht – Zum Sportbegriff der §§ 265c und 265d und deren Anwendbarkeit auf kompetitives Computerspielen. HRRS, 18(10), 407-413.
Scholz, T. M. (2012). New Broadcasting Ways In IPTV — The Case of the Starcraft II Broadcasting Scene. World Media Economics & Management Conference 23–27.5.2012 in Thessaloniki, Greece.
Scholz, T. M. (2019). eSports is Business. Management in the World of Competitive Gaming. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
Scholz, T. M. (2020). Deciphering the World of eSports. International Journal on Media Management, 22(1), 1-12.
Scholz, T. M., & Stein, V. (2017). Juxtaposing Transduction and Transtraction: Pugging in International Virtual Teams. Palabra Clave, 20(3), 788-804.
Scholz, T. M., & Stein, V. (2017). Going Beyond Ambidexterity in the Media Industry: Esports as Pioneer of Ultradexterity. Int’l Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 9(2), 47-62.
Schubert, M., Drachen, A., & Mahlmann, T. (2016). Esports Analytics Through Encounter Detection. In Proceedings of the MIT Sloan Sports Analytics Conference 2016 MIT Sloan.
Schürmann, V. (2019). Am Fall eSport: Wie den Sport bestimmen? Von Merkmalen und Grundideen. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research. Retrieved from
Schulke, H.-J., & Wendeboern, T. (2018). Aufklärung, was sonst!?Das Märchen vom E-Sport. SportZeiten: Sport in Geschichte, Kultur und Gesellschaft, 18(3), 7-32.
Schulze, U. (2016). “Wir finden für jeden das passende Paket”: Interview mit Ulrich Schulze, Vice President Pro Gaming bei der ESL, über die Entwicklung des eSports und die Möglichkeiten für Sponsoren, sich in dem jungen und zukunftsträchtigen Markt zu positionieren. Stadionwelt inside, 76-77.
Scozzafava, A. (2017). E-sports: Analysis of the Supply Chain and its Evolution.
Scully-Blaker, R. (2016). On Becoming “Like eSports” Twitch as a Platform for the Speedrunning Community. DiGRA/FDG ’16 – Abstract Proceedings of the First International Joint Conference of DiGRA and FDG.
Sell, J. (2015). E-Sports Broadcasting (Master’s Thesis). MIT, Cambridge, MA
Şentuna, B., & Kanbur, D. (2016). What Kind of an Activity is a Virtual Game? A Postmodern Approach in Relation to Concept of Phantasm by Deleuze and the Philosophy of Huizinga. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 10(1), 42-50.
Seo, Y. (2013). Electronic Sports: A New Marketing Landscape of the Experience Economy. Journal of Marketing Management, published online 21 August.
Seo, Y. (2016). Professionalized Consumption and Identity Transformations in the Field of eSports. Journal of Business Research, 69(1), 264-272.
Seo, Y., & Jung, S.-U. (2016). Beyond Solitary Play in Computer Games: the Social Practices of eSports. Journal of Consumer Culture, 16(3), 635-655.
Seula, R., Amaro, M., & Fragoso, S. (2018). Play to Win, Profit & Entertain: a Study of Double Performance as Athlete and Streamer.
Seven, A. (2018). eSport und der blinde Fleck: Ein Diskussionsbeitrag vor dem Hintergrund von Manfred Franz’und Detlef Köpkes Neuen Denkwegen im Sport (2017). German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research48(4), 582-586.
Shaw, A. (2013). E-Sport Spectator Motivation (Master of Science dissertation). George Mason University, VA.
Sihvonen, T. (2018). eSports and Regulation. Proceedings of the Se­mi­nar on eS­ports, Exer­ga­ming, and Fan­ta­sy Lea­gues, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
Siutila, M. (2018a). The Gamification of Gaming Streams. Proceeding of the 2nd GamiFIN Conference, Pori, Finland, 131-140.
Siutila, M. (2018b). European Esports: a Peek into National Scenes. Proceedings of the Se­mi­nar on eS­ports, Exer­ga­ming, and Fan­ta­sy Lea­gues, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
Siutila, M. & Havaste, E. (2018). “A Pure Meritocracy Blind to Identity”: Exploring the Online Responses to All-Female Teams in Reddit, in Proceedings of the 2018 DiGRA International Conference.
Sjöblom, M., & Hamari, J. (2016). Why do People Watch Others Play Video Games? An Empirical Study on the Motivations of Twitch Users. Computers in Human Behavior, 75, 985-996.
Sjöblom, M., Hassan, L., Macey, J., Törhönen, M., & Hamari, J. (2018). Liking the Game: How Can Spectating Motivations Influence Social Media Usage at Live Esports Events? In Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Media & Society, Copenhagen, Denmark (SMSociety). DOI: 10.1145/3217804.3217908.
Skoglund, P.-I. (2018). Good Game, Well Played: A Ethnographic Study of Collegiate Esport in Southern California (Master’s thesis). University of Bergen, Bergen.
Skouroliakos, L., Halkiopoulos, C., Gkintoni, E., & Antonopoulo, H. (2017, June). Psychological Affect of e-Sports in e-Marketing via Computational Methods. In 5 th International Conference on Contemporary Marketing Issues ICCMI June 21-23, 2017 Thessaloniki, Greece (p. 327).
Skubida, D. (2016). Can Some Computer Games Be a Sport?: Issues with Legitimization of eSport as a Sporting Activity. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations (IJGCMS), 8(4).
Slacek Brlek, A. S. (2014). Inside the Mind of the Machine: an Exploratory Study of Street Fighter IV Players. Teorija in Praksa, 51(1), 59-71.
Smerdov, A., Burnaev, E., & Somov, A. (2019). eSports Pro-Players Behavior During the Game Events: Statistical Analysis of Data Obtained Using the Smart Chair. Retrieved from
Smith, A. (2018). Why Intel Is Betting on eSports and Virtual Reality. PC MAgazine, November, 9-12.
Smith, M. J., Birch, P. D. J., & Bright, D. (2019). Identifying Stressors and Coping Strategies of Elite eSports Competitors. International Journal of Gaming an Computer-Mediated Simulations, 11(2), 22-39.
Smithies, T. D., Toth, A. J., Conroy, E., Ramsbottom, N., Kowal, M., & Campbell, M. J. (2020). Life After Esports: A Grand Field Challenge. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1-5.
Snavely, T. L. (2014). History and Analysis of eSport Systems (Master of Science in Kinesiology dissertation), University of Texas, Austin.
Söderin, J. (2017). Feature Development for eSports Broadcasts With a Focus on the Intermission Between Matches. KTH, Stockholm.
Song, Y. (2016). Real-Time Video Highlights for Yahoo Esports. 1st NIPS Workshop on Large Scale Computer Vision Systems (LSCVS 2016), Barcelona, Spain.
Soumokil, G. (2009). The Rising World of e-Sports: The Revelation of the Unknown World of e-Sports and its Influences on the Western Society.
Spitzer, M. (2019). E-Sport – Lobbyismus versus Gemeinnützigkeit und Gesundheit. Nervenheilkunde 2019, 38(04), 157-168.
Stahlke, S., Robb, J., & Mirza-Babei, P. (2018). The Fall of the Fourth Wall: Designing and Evaluating Interactive Spectator Experiences. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 10(1), 42-62.
Stald, G. (2001). Meeting in the Combat Zone: Online Multi-player Computer Games as Spaces for Social and Cultural Encounters. In Proceedings of Association of Internet Researchers Conference, ed. Leslie Shade. Minneapolis, USA.
Stein, A. (2012). Indie Sports Games: Performance and Performativity. Loading…  The Journal of the Canadian Game Studies Association, 7(11), 61-77.
Stein, A., Mitgusch, K., & Consalvo, M. (2013). Who are Sports Gamers? A Large Scale Study of Sports Video Game Players. Convergence, 19(3), 345-363.
Stein, V., & Scholz, T. M. (2016). The Intercultural Challenge of Building the European eSports League. In C. Barmeyer & P. Franklin (Eds.), Case Studies in Intercultural Management: Achieving Synergy from Diversity (pp. 80-94). London: Palgrave.
Stein, V., & Scholz, T. M. (2016). Sky is the Limit. Esports as Entrepreneurial Innovator for Media Management. Interdisciplinarity in Social and Human Sciences, 5, 622.
Steinkuehler, C. (2019). Esports Research: Critical, Empirical, and Historical Studies of Competitive Videogame Play. Games and Culture,
Steltenpohl, C. N., Reed, J., & Keys, C. B. (2018). Do Others Understand Us? Fighting Game Community Member Perceptions of Others’ Views of the FGC. Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice, 9(1), 1- 21.
Stepanov, A., Lange, A., Khromov, N., Korotin, A., Burnaev, E., & Somov, A. (2019). Sensors and Game Synchronization for Data Analysis in eSports. Retrieved from
Stevens, P. (2018). Esports is Expanding. TVB Europe, November/ December 2018, 54-57.
Stoll, A. (2009). “Killerspiele” oder E-Sport. vwh Verlag.
Stoll, A. (2010). Killerspiele als Sportgerät? Zur Funktionalisierung von Gewalt im eSport. AugenBlick. Marburger Hefte zur Medienwissenschaft, (46), 36-53.
Streubel, A. (2010). Female Teams im eSport: Re-Konstruktion der Kategorie Geschlecht.
Ström, P., & Ernkvist, M. (2018). The Korean Online Game Wave – Development Within the Experience Economy. In A. Scupola & L. Fuglsang (Eds.), Services, Experiences and Innovation – Integrating and Extending Research (pp. 316-334). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Summerley, R. (2018). The Development of Sports. A Comparative Analysis of the Early Institutionalisation of Traditional Sports and E-sports. Games and Culture,
Suschevskiy, V., & Marchenko, E. (2018). Network Analysis of Player Transfers in Esports: The Case of Dota 2. DGTS 2018: Digital Transformation and Global Society, 468–473.
Sutantio, Y. E., Poedjioetami, E., & Widjajanti, W. W. (2019). eSport Building Design Role In Introducing Its Activities. IPTEK Journal of Proceedings Series, (6).
Svelch, J. (2019). Mediatization of a Card Game: Magic: The Gathering, eSports, and Streaming. Media, Culture & Society, 1-19.
Swalwell, M. L. (2009). LAN Gaming Groups: Snapshots from an Australasian Case Study, 1999–2008. In L. Hjorth & D. Chan (Eds.), Gaming Cultures and Place in Asia-Pacific (pp. 117–136). Oxon, UK: Routledge
Sweeney, K., Tuttle, M. H., & Berg, M. D. (2019). Esports Gambling: Market Structure and Biases. Games and Culture, 1-27.
Szablewicz, M. (2011). From Addicts to Athletes: Participation in the Discursive Construction of Digital Games in Urban China. In Selected Papers of Internet Research, IR 12.0 conference.
Szablewicz, M. (2016). A Realm of Mere Representation? ‘Live’ e-Sports Spectacles and the Crafting of China’s Digital Gaming Image. Games and Culture, 11(3), 256-274.
Szablewicz, M. (2015). The Spectacle of Spectatorship: e-Sports Events and the Crafting of China’s Digital Gaming Image. Games and Culture, Special Issue: Chinese Game Studies.


Tang, W. (2018). Understanding Esports from the Perspective of Team Dynamics. The Sport Journal, published online 26 July.
Taylor, N. T. (2009). Where the Women are(n’t): Gender and a North American ‘Pro-gaming’ Scene. In B. Atkins, H. Kennedy, & T. Krzywinska (Eds.), Breaking New Ground: Innovation in Games, Play, Practice and Theory: Proceedings of the 2009 Digital Games Research Association conference, London.
Taylor, N. T. (2009). Power Play: Digital Gaming Goes Pro (Doctoral Dissertation). York University, Toronto.
Taylor, N. T. (2011). Play Globally, Act Locally: The Standardization of Pro Halo 3 Gaming. International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology, 3(1).
Taylor, N. T. (2012). ‘A Silent Team is a Dead Team‘: Communicative Norms in Team-based Halo 3 Play. In G. Voorhees (Ed.), Guns, Grenades and Grunts: First Person Shooter Games. New York: Continuum.
Taylor, N. T. (2015). Play to the Camera: Video Ethnography, Spectatorship, and e-Sports. Convergence, 24 April.
Taylor, N., Jenson, J., de Castell, S., & Dilouya, B. (2014). Public Displays of Play: Studying Online Games in Physical Settings. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. DOI: 10.1111/jcc4.12054
Taylor, N., & Hammond, R. (2018). Outside the Lanes: Supporting a Non-normative League of Legends Community. In T. Harper, M. Blythe-Adams & N. Taylor (Eds.), Queer Studies/Game Studies: Playing Out Binaries. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Taylor, T. L. (2006). Does WoW Change Everything?: How a PvP Server, Multinational Playerbase, and Surveillance Mod Scene Caused Me Pause. Games and Culture, 1 (4): 1–20.
Taylor, T. L. (2006). Play Between Worlds: Exploring Online Game Culture. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Taylor, T. L. (2012). Raising the Stakes: The Professionalization of Computer Gaming. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Taylor, T. L. (2018). Watch Me Play: Twitch and the Rise of Game Live Streaming. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Taylor, T. L., & Witkowski, E. (2010). This is How We Play it: What a Mega-LAN Can Teach Us About Games. In Y. Pisan (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Game. Monterey, CA: ACM Press.
The Esports Observer. (2018). Current State of Esports Associations & Federations: the Blueprint to Understanding the Esports Associations & Federations Landscap.
Thiborg, J. (2009). eSport and Governing Bodies. Paper to be presented at the conference Kultur-Natur, Norrköping 16 June.
Thiborg, J. & Carlsson, B. (2010). Law and Morality in Counter Strike. ESLJ, 8, 1.
Thomas, C. J., Rothschild, J., Earnest, C. P., & Blaisdell, A. (2019). The Effects of Energy Drink Consumption on Cognitive and Physical Performance in Elite League of Legends Players. Sports 2019, 7(9), 196.
Thompson, J. J., Blair, M. R., Chen, L., & Henrey, A. J. (2013). Video Game Telemetry as a Critical Tool in the Study of Complex Skill Learning. PLoS ONE, 8(9).
Thorhauer, Y., Jakob, A., & Ratz, M. (2018). E-Sport – Skizze eines neuen Forschungsfeldes. In Y. Torhauer & C. Kexel (Eds.), Compliance im Sport (pp. 105-126). Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden.
Toft-Nielsen, C. (2016). Gaming Expertise Doing Gender and Maintaining Social Relationships in the Context of Gamers’ Daily Lives. NORDICOM REVIEW, 37, 71-83.
Törhönen, M., Sjöblom, M., & Hamari, J. (2018). Likes and Views: Investigating Internet Video Content Creators Perceptions of Popularity. Proceedings of the the 2nd International GamiFIN Conference, Pori, Finland, 108-114.
Tong, B. A. (2017). A New Player has Entered the Game: Immigration Reform for eSports Players. Jeffrey S Moorad Sports Law Journal, 24, 351–386.
Toomey, R. P. (2019). Upholding the Integrity of Esports to Successfully and Safely Legitimize Esports Wagering. Gaming Law Review.
Toth, A. J., Kowal, M., & Campbell, M. J. (2019). The Color-Word Stroop Task Does Not Differentiate Cognitive Inhibition Ability Among Esports Gamers of Varying Expertise. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1-7.
Trancoso Jiminéz, J. (2016). E-Sports evolución y tratamiento en los medios. El caso League of Legends. Université de Séville.
Trent, L. D., & Shafer, D. M. (2020). Extending Disposition Theory of Sports Spectatorship to ESports. International Journal of Communication, 14, 1049-1069.
Trepte, S., Reinecke, L., & Jüchems, K. (2012). The Social Side of Gaming. How Online Computer Games Creates Online and Offline Social Support. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 83.
Triberti, S., Milani, L., Grumi, S., Peracchia, S., Curcio, G., & Riva, G. (2018). What Matters is When You Play: Investigating the Relationship Between Online Video Games Addiction and Time Spent Playing over Specific Day Phases. Addictive Behaviors Reports.
Türkay, S., & Adinolf, S. (2017). Appeal of Online Collectible Card Games: Social Features of Hearthstone. In Proceedings of the 29th Australian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction (pp. 622-627). ACM.
Türkay, S., Formosa, J. Adinolf, S., Cuthbert, R., & Altizer, R. (2020). See No Evil, Hear No Evil, Speak No Evil: How Collegiate Esports Players Define, Experience and Cope with Toxicity. In CHI ’20: Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Honululu, USA.
Turtiainen, R., Friman, U., & Ruotsalainen, M. (2018). ‘Not Only for a Celebration of Competitive Overwatch but Also for National Pride’: Sportificating the Overwatch World Cup 2016. Games and Culture, published online 27 August.
Tyrväinen, V. (2018). Influence of Esports Spectating on Customer Retention in Freemium Video Games (Master’s thesis). Tampere Univerity of Technology, Tampere.


Ücüncüoglu, M., & Cakir, V. O. (2017). Modern Spor Kulüplerinin Espor Faaliyetlerine İlgi Gösterme Nedenleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma. İnönü Üniversitesi, Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 2017, 4(2), 34-47.
Unbekannter Autor. (2016). Gutachten über Voraussetzungen und Auswirkungen der Anerkennung von eSport als Sportart.
Unbekannter Autor. (2018). 2018 Esports Survey .
Unbekannter Autor. (2018). AG „eSport“: Szenarien für die Entwicklung von Empfehlungen zum Umgang mit „eSport“.
Unbekannter Autor (2018). Anerkennung des eSports als Sport : Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Kleine Anfrage der Abgeordneten Britta Katharina Dassler, Stephan Thomae, Dr. Marcel Klinge, weiterer Abgeordneter und der Fraktion der FDP ; Drucksache 19/4060.
Unbekannter Autor (2018). Bedeutung von eSport für Menschen mit Behinderung : Positionierung des Deutschen Behindertensportverbands (DBS) e.V..
Unbekannter Autor. (2018). Positionierung des Landessportbundes NRW und der Sportjugend NRW zum Thema „eSport“.
Unbekannter Autor. (2018). Umgang mit elektronischen Sportartensimulationen, eGaming und „eSport“ : Positionierung von DOSB-Präsidium und -Vorstand.
Unbekannter Autor. (2019). Anerkennung der Gemeinnützigkeit von eSport-Vereinen : Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Kleine Anfrage der Abgeordneten Britta Katharina Dassler, Stephan Thomae, Grigorios Aggelidis, weiterer Abgeordneter und der Fraktion der FDP – Drucksache 19/8769 – ; BT-Drucksache 19/9442.
Unbekannter Autor. (2019). Auswirkung von eSport-Angeboten auf die Anerkennung der Gemeinnützigkeit : WD 4 – 3000 – 012/19.
Unsworth, N., Redick, T. S., McMillan, B. D., Hambrick, D. Z., Kane, M. J., & Engle, R. W. (2015). Is Playing Video Games Related to Cognitive Abilities. Psychological Science, 26, 759-774.


Välisalo, T., & Ruotsalainen, M. (2018). Overwatch: The Game, the eSports, and Transmedial User Practices. Proceedings of the Se­mi­nar on eS­ports, Exer­ga­ming, and Fan­ta­sy Lea­gues, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
Vanaskie, M., Green, W., Kutelski, D., & Shapiro, D. (2018). Emerging Leaders of Gaming – Sports Betting Webinar: Opportunities Inside and Out of Nevada. Gaming Law Review, 22(1), 40-51.
Van Ditmarsch, J. (2013). Video Games as a Spectator Sport. How Electronic Sports Transforms Spectatorship (Master of New Media & Digital Culture Dissertation). Utrecht University.
Vanegas, J. C., Ochoa, G. V., & Gutierrez, J. C. (2018). Scientometric Analysis of Research on eSports from 2007 to 2017. Contemporary Engineering Sciences, 11(70), 3463-3471.
Van Hilvoorde, I. (2016). Sport and Play in a Digital World. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 10(1), 1–4.
Van Hilvoorde, I., & Pot, N. (2016). Embodiment and Fundamental Motor Skills in eSports. Sports, Ethics and Philosophy, 10(1), 14-27.
Vansyngel, S., Velpry, A., & Besombes, N. (2018). French Esports Institutionalization. Proceedings of the 2nd GamiFIN Conference, Pori, Finland, 123-130.
Velichkovsky, B. B., Khromov, N., Korotin, A., Burnaev, E., & Somov, A. (2019). Visual Fixations Duration as an Indicator of Skill Level in eSports. Retrieved from
Verchere, R. (2013). Du monde du sport au monde du jeu vidéo, La fabrique des mondes vidéoludiques − Game Studies ? à la française ! ENS Lyon, Lyon.
Verhoef, G. (n. d.). Professionalization of eSports Broadcasts the Mediatization of Dreamhack Counter-Strike Tournaments (Master’s Thesis).
Villar, J. G., & Murillo, C. (2018). eSports: Profile of Participants, Complementarity with Sports and its Perception as Sport. Evidence from Sports Video Games.
von Au, C. (2018). Play. Das Leben als Pro Gamer. Carlsen.
Voorhees, G., &  Orlando, A. (2018). Performing Neoliberal Masculinity: Reconfiguring Hegemonic Masculinity in Professional Gaming. In Masculinities in Play. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Vukelic, N., & Jorgensen, T. J. (2018). The Wild West of eSports. What Motivates Individuals to Work in the Industry (Master’s Thesis). Copenhagen Business School.


Wagner, M. (2006). On the Scientific Relevance of eSport. In Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Internet Computing and Conference on Computer Game Development. Las Vegas, Nevada: CSREA Press.
Wagner, M. (2007). Competing in Metagame Gamespace. 10.1007/978–3–7643–8415–9_66.
Walzel, S., & Schubert, M. (2018). Perspektiven des Sportsponsorings. Springer Gabler: Berlin, Heidelberg.
Wang, H., Yang, H.-T., & Sun, C.-T. (2015). Thinking Style and Team Competition Game Performance and Enjoyment. IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, 2015, 7(3), 243-254.
Wang, M. (2018). Team Queue – A Mobile Application Which Provides a Third Party Stage for an E-Sports Service Provider (Master’s thesis). Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester.
Ward, M. R., & Harmon, A. D. (2019). ESport Superstars. Journal of Sports Economics, 20(8), 987-1013.
Wardaszko, M., Ćwil, M., Chojecki, P., & Dąbrowski, K. (2019, January). Analysis of Matchmaking Optimization Systems Potential in Mobile Esports. In Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
Wattanapisit, A., Wattanapisit, S., & Wongsiri, S. (2020). Public Health Perspective on eSports. Public Health Reports, 135(3), 295-298.
Weiss, T. (2008). Cultural Influences on Hedonic Adoption Behavior: Propositions Regarding the Adoption of Competitive Video and Computer Online Gaming. In Proceedings of the SIG-DIGIT Workshop 2008.
Weiss, T., & Schiele, S. (2011). Fulfilling the Needs of eSports Consumers: A Uses and Gratifications Perspective. In Proceedings of the 24th Bled eConference (pp. 572–580), 12–15 June. Bled, Slovenia: University of Maribor.
Weiss, T., & Schiele, S. (2013). Virtual Worlds in Competitive Contexts: Analyzing eSports Consumer Needs. Electronic Markets, 23(4), 307–316.
Wendeborn, T., Schulke, H. J. & Schneider, A. (2018). eSport: Vom Präfix zum Thema für den organisierten Sport?! German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 48(3), 451-455.
Werdenich, G. (2010). PC Bang, E-Sport und der Zauber von StarCraft. vwh Verlag.
Whalen, S. J. (2013). Cyberathletes- Lived Experience of Video Game Tournaments (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
Willimczik, K. (2019a). eSport zwischen “Sport” und “Nicht-Sport” – Wegweisung für eine sachliche Diskussion.
Willimczik, K. (2019b). eSport „ist“ nicht Sport–eSport und Sport haben Bedeutungen. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 1-13.
Wimmer, J. (2012). Digital Game Culture(s) as Prototype(s) of Mediatization and Commercialization of Society. In J. Fromme & A. Unger (Eds.), Computer Games and New Media Cultures: A Handbook of Digital Game Studies (pp. 525-540), Berlin: Springer.
Witkowski, E. (2009). Probing the Sportiness of eSports. In J. Christophers & T. M. Scholz (Eds.), eSports yearbook 2009 (pp. 53-56), Norderstedt, Germany: Books on Demand GmbH.
Witkowski, E. (2012). On the Digital Playing Field: How We ‘Do Sport’ With Networked Computer Games. Games and Culture, 7, 349-374.
Witkowski, E. (2012). Inside the Huddle: The Sociology and Phenomenology of Team Play in Networked Computer Games (Doctoral dissertation) IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Witkowski, E. (2013). Eventful masculinities: Negotiations of Hegemonic Sporting Masculinities at LANs. In M. Consalvo, K. Mitgutsch, & A. Stein (Eds.) Sports Videogames. New York: Routledge.
Witkowski, E. (2014). Competition and Cooperation. in B. Perron and M. J. Wolf (Eds.),  The Routledge Companion to Video Game Studies. New York: Routledge.
Witkowski, E. (2018). Sensuous Proximity in Research Methods with Expert Teams, Media Sports, and eSports Practices. MediaKultur: Journal of media and communication research, 34(64), 31-51.
Witkowski, E. (2018). Doing/Undoing Gender with the Girl Gamer in High-Performance Play. Feminism in Play.
Witkowski, E., Hutchins, B., & Carter, M. (2013). E-sports on the Rise?: Critical Considerations on the Growth and Erosion of Organized Digital Gaming Competitions. IE ’13 Proceedings of The 9th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment: Matters of Life and DeathArticle №43. Melbourne, Australia – September 30 – October 01, 2013.
Witkowski, E. et al. (2017). Esports Futures in Australia. Extended Abstract Presented at DiGRA 2017.
Witkowski, E., & Manning, J. (2018). Player Power: Networked Careers in eSports and High Performance Game Livestreaming Practices. Convergence The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 1–17.
Wohn. D. Y., & Freeman, G. (2019). Live Streaming, Playing, and Money Spending Behaviors in eSports. Games and Culture,
Wood, L., Hoeber, O., Snelgrove, R., & Hoeber, L. (2019). Computer Science Meets Digital Leisure: Multiple Perspectives on Social Media and eSports Collaborations, Journal of Leisure Research,
Woodcock, J., & Johnson, M. R. (2018). Work, Play, and Precariousness: An Overview of the Labour Ecosystem of Esports. Working Paper.
Woodcock, J., & Johnson, M. R. (2019). The Affective Labor and Performance of Live Streaming on, Television & New Media, 20(8), 813-823.


Xia, B., Wang, H., & Zhou, R. (2017). What Contributes to Success in MOBA Games? An Empirical Study of Defense of the Ancients 2. Games and Culture
Xiao, M. (2019). Factors Influencing eSports Viewership: An Approach Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. Communication & Sport.
Xiao, X., Chian Tan, F. T., Lim, E. T. K., Henningsson, S., Vatrapu, R., Hedman, J., Tan, C. W., Clemenson, T., Mukkamala, R. R., & Van Hillegersberg, J. (2018). Sports Digitalization: An Overview and A Research Agenda. Paper presented at 38th International Conference on Information Systems 2017, Seoul, Korea, Republic of.
Xue, H., Newman, J. I., & Du, J. (2019). Narratives, Identity and Community in Esports. Leisure Studies,


Yan, J. (2018). How Does Match-Fixing Inform Computer Game Security? Cambrige International Workshop on Security Protocols XXVI, 166–170.
Yang, Y., Qin, T., & Lei, Y.-H. (2016). Real-time eSports Match Result Prediction. NIPS 2016: Neural Information Processing Systems, Barcelona, Spain.
Yoon, T.-J., & Jin, D. Y. (2017). The Korean Wave: Evolution, Fandom and Transnationality.
Young-Nam, S., Kim, M., Lee, D., & Jung, Y. (2018). Attention to Esports Advertisement: Effect of Ad Animation and in-game dynamics on viewers’ visual attention. Behavior & Information Technology, 37(12), 1194–1202.
Yu, H. (2018). Game On: The Rise of the eSports Middle Kingdom. Media Industries, 5(1), 88-105.


Zagala, K., & Strzelecki, A. (2019). eSports Evolution in Football Game Series. Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research,
Zanin, N. (2018). The Impact of Leadership on Virtual Team Satisfaction and Viability: the Role of Performance Monitoring and Team Work Engagement (Master’s thesis). Universidade Católica Portuguesa.
Zarrabi, S. A., & Jerkrot, H. N. (2016). Value Creation and Appropriation in the eSports Industry (Master’s thesis). Chalmers Universtiy of Technology, Gothenburg.
Zhu, L. (2018). Masculinity’s New Battle Arena in International E-Sports: The Games Begin. In N. Taylor & G. Vorhees (Eds.), Masculinities in Play (pp. 229-247). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Zolides, A. (2015). Lipstick Bullets: Labour and Gender in Professional Gamer Self-Branding. Persona Studies, 1(2), 42-53.
Zwibel, H., DiFrancisco-Donoghue, J., DeFeo, A., & Yao, S. (2019). An Osteopathic Physician’s Approach to the Esports Athlete. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association , 119(11), 756-762.